u02d2 The Construct of Self-Esteem
People with low self-esteem also want to know if their appearance is adequate and if they look and behave appropriately . So they may spend a lot of time in front of a mirror watching the way they hold themselves when standing , walking , sitting , or speaking . In other words , individuals with low self-esteem do their best to prove they are not worse than others and to maintain the favorable and positive opinion of them . It is thus not surprising that Page 2 they prefer the company of people who will admire and support
they prefer the company of people who will admire and support
them to those who might criticize and ridicule them . They usually react to any criticism by becoming angry , hostile , or ashamed and humiliated (Heine et al , 1999
Low self-esteem in the Freudian theoretical model
According to Sigmund Freud 's psychoanalytic theory , a sense of low self-esteem may be explained by a conflict between individuals ' wish to perform well and be successful and a worry (anxiety ) that they may fail in this task and , as a result , be criticized or humiliated . What follows is a situation when individuals feel unhappy and blocked instead of acting appropriately . Their experience of anxiety caused by their deficiencies is painful to live with and can 't last for long . In such cases defense mechanisms are used to solve the problem and they start to pretend or imagine that they possess the qualities which , in reality they lack . They emphasize their importance , power , or independence and try to convince other people that they are really like this . Every now and then they need evidence that they are loved and admired by other people in to maintain their positive image and self-esteem . Those who criticize them only enhance their feeling of anxiety , and are therefore avoided (Heine et al , 1999
It is not known exactly...