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Paper Topic:

What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Aztec and Inca civilizations on th

aztec and inca civilization


Thesis : Two world , completely different , met each other . Those worlds were at different stages of cultural-historical development : if the most progressive Indian civilizations corresponded in the Old World the most archaic form of governments , Europe passed Renaissance and experienced the period of anti-feudal revolutions . Nevertheless , American aborigines had something to share with newcomers from their cultural achievements cumulated for thousands of years of individual development

Let 's examine the heritage of Inca 's and Aztecs ' civilization on the eve of their encounter with European societies

p Aztecs ' civilization had well-developed mythology with wide pantheon of Gods . They created massive stone-made buildings , were skillful in stone engraving and pottery . Their society was known for hierarchy (plebs and inherited aristocracy ) and narrow specialization , what caused that religious , managerial and economic questions were the work of specially taught people

Aztecs practiced sacrifices and killed people in order to feed the Sun (in accordance with their legend , the world should die from hunger and the only way to prevent catastrophe was to feed the Sun with heart from live men . All their political interests were based on desire to create government , based on supremacy and strict obedience

War was the most important sphere of Aztecs ' life . Successful wars enriched empire and gave possibility to warriors to get promotion Aztecs were courageous worriers and behaved small boys as future worriers . They subordinated almost the whole Central America

In spite of cruelty and strict system of government , Aztecs had rich culture and great successes in science . They had cyclical counting of time , where Sun 's 365-day calendar they combined with ritual 260-days calendar . Among their achievements were works in genres of oral literature as epic , hymn , lyrical poetry , religious songs , dramas legends etc . They were skillful builders , sculptors , stone engravers potters , jewelers and weavers

Inca also was great and high-developed civilization , centre of which was located at territory of modern Peru in the Southern America . They built beautiful cities and roads , over high Ands Mountains . In Inca 's capital majestic Sun Temple , decorated with gold was built . Inca developed original system of letter . They kept books and made letter with help of colored cords and small knots - kipu - where each knot or cord meant definite subject or thing . Their social organization consisted of family clans which lived together at special territory , shared cattle and crops . They didn 't recognize individual landed property . Inca 's empire was theocratic , because emperor was not only supreme governor and priest but a demigod

Inca 's culture is known with their monumental architecture , marvelous things made of gold and ceramics . Well-thought organization of society and developed network of roads allowed them to keep in obedience great empire , which was located at the territory of Central Ands

Indian civilizations of the New World managed to reach their apogee without important technical achievements of antiquity such as smelted metal and steel , rearing of domestic animals , wheel transport , etc . To the moment Europeans cam Inca already used in their practice...

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