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Paper Topic:

strength and weaknesses of an integrative approach to counselling

(Kaufmann 1989

Most Schools of Thought

Existential approach

The existential approach renounces the deterministic view of human nature and gives emphasis to the freedom that human beings have that enables them to determine their own circumstances . One of its main goals is for clients to get involved with their selves and to make conscious choices in harmony with their own self and its wants , rather than allowing other people or events to determine their behavior . When individuals are able to see themselves with their own feelings and emotions , they

are also able to see their potential to grow and improve Moustakas (1994 ) observed that when people are dominated by public opinion and affected by the world outside , they are in a state of fallenness . In this state individuals take on the values , ideas , and beliefs of others and lose their individuality . They become distracted by superficial relationships and lose focus on their potential to express their unique existence . The existential approach calls for individuals to make choices for themselves , while taking into consideration their role in the family and community in doing so

There are four givens , or premises , of the human condition that existential psychology addresses . These "givens " are an inescapable part of human existence in the world and can be labeled as death , freedom isolation , and meaninglessness . Existential therapy deals with a basic anxiety that comes out of each person 's accomplishments and undertakings---conscious and unconscious--to deal with the complex facts of life that are rooted in the person 's existence (Yalom , 1980

Humanistic and Gestalt therapy

Humanistic psychology is rooted in respect for the individual , putting the person in the centre , instead of abstract theory . For example , today people who visit a psychotherapist are no longer considered 'sick ' or 'neurotic therapy is instead seen as an educational...

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