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Paper Topic:

stages of social and emotional development in children.



Child development has always remained under tight scrutiny by various psychologists , and sociologists . In this regard , a large number of theories exist which highlight various factors involved in the development of a child . This examines various theories of child development by analyzing view points of three important theorists . It also encompasses the stages and factors affecting the child development .Introduction

Children are the purest gifts of nature . Their minds are like blank s . They are not just small people . They are developmentally different from adults and therefore

deserve specialized treatment Children need to be supplied with the tools for learning and proper development . Child growth and development is the result of human biology , anthropology , medicine , sociology , and psychology . It is not only one area of science or social science . A number of theorists therefore keep on debating on the issue but the importance of proper child development is undisputed . This focuses on stages of child development in light of various theories . An effort has also been made to identify important factors which affect the development of a child

Stages of Child Development

Various theorists have diverse opinions on the child development . Some theorists accord lot of importance to the developmental stages but there are theorists who contest the same . Erikson (1997 , pp . 55-77 ) dwelled on a theory describing eight developmental stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood . A person going through these developmental stages needs to master challenges being presented by that stage . A challenge of a particular stage not successfully completed reappear as problem in the next stage . According to Erikson , a child passing through the age of 6-10 years has to confront the Middle Childhood Stage which offers various challenges like acquiring of skills for and developing competence in work , developing friendships , self-evaluations , and team-play etc

Vygotsky 's theoretical framework revolves around the social interaction which plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition . Vygotsky (1978 ,

. 57 ) states "Every function in the child 's cultural development appears twice : first , on the social level , and later , on the individual level first , between people (inter-psychological ) and then inside the child (intra-psychological . This applies equally to voluntary attention , to logical memory , and to the formation of concepts . All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals

The child development model structured by Swiss biologist and psychologist Jean Piaget (1896-1980 ) is based on the idea that the developing child builds networked concepts for understanding and responding to physical experiences within his or her environment Piaget 's theory identifies four developmental stages and the processes by which children progress through them (Wikipedia , the free encyclopedia 2006 . The four stages are

Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 years . In this stage , a child builds a set of concepts about reality but does not know that physical objects remain in existence even when out of sight

Preoperational Stage (2-7 years . The child is not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs tangible physical...

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