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Paper Topic:

The rise in Type 2 Diabetes and its link to fastfoods among teenagers and adolescents.


Diabetes , Obesity and Fast Food





The Rise in Type 2 Diabetes and Its Link to Fast Foods Among Teenagers and Adolescents


Over the past decade there has been a growing concern about the rise in type 2 diabetes , especially in the young population . Risk factors for type 2 diabetes in adolescents include diet , family history , physical activity , and environmental factors , many of which also contribute to obesity . Moreover , the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased

tremendously during the past three decades . Nearly 22 million children under the age of five are considered overweight (Deckelbaum Williams 2001 . On the other hand , the burgeoning fast food market corroborates the findings of several studies : Americans are growing increasingly dependent on fast food for their meal choices

According to NPD Group 's 20th annual Eating Patterns in America "ninety-two percent of take-out lunches come from fast food restaurants today , and 92 percent of individuals consume some form of 'ready-to-eat foods in the home on a daily basis (NPD Group , 2005 . Sales at fast food restaurants now account for nearly 30 percent of the 500 billion U . S . restaurant industry (NPD Group , 2005 . The U . S . Department of Agriculture 's Economic Research Service forecasts an increase of six percent in expenditures on fast food by Americans over the next fifteen years (Stewart et al , 2004

A significant proportion of these expenditures is spent on meals for children (Bowman et al , 2004 . Fast food consumption by children aged 2-17 increased from 2 percent in 1977-78 to 10 percent in 1994-98 (Lin Guthrie Frazao , 2001 . Children are a primary market target of the food industry , which recognizes their strong influence on parents spending choices and their potential as future customers (Austin et al 2005 "Cradle-to-grave marketing " has long been practiced by food industry giants , such as McDonald 's and Coca-Cola . School cafeterias were found to be marketing sites for brand-name foods , which are served advertised , and branded on "educational " materials . Levine (1999 ) found that fast foods have become increasingly present at elementary schools "Approximately 9 of elementary schools participating in the school lunch program offered brand-name fast foods to students during the 1995-1996 school year . The three most popular vendors were Pizza Hut Domino 's Pizza , and Taco Bell (p . 290

In one study (Ogden et al , 2002 , it was concluded that the trend of overweight in the younger population is continuing to increase . The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES ) III indicated that between the years of 1999-2000 , greater than 14 of the youth population were overweight , and surprisingly , 11 had a BMI greater than 30 which is defined as obesity in adults (Liu , Hironaka Pihoker 2004 . Children who are overweight at a young age have a much higher risk of being overweight as an adult as well as developing several comorbidities associated with overweight such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease (Freedman et al , 1999 . An overweight adolescent between the ages of...

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