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Paper Topic:

mini project for electrical and electronic engineering

Introduction

This report discusses the implementation of a circuit project . The objectives of this project were for me to develop self study , project management and teamwork skills . In this project . we were supposed to construct , test , analyze and posit possible improvements to a given circuit . The next section , Section I will discuss the circuit construction details . Section II analyzes the given circuit , trying to discover how it functions and how electrical engineering laws govern this function . Lastly , Section III is about possible improvements to be done to the given circuit p

Section I - Circuit Construction

The circuit was constructed using discrete components , breadboards jumper wires and batteries . Implementing a circuit using a breadboard is relatively fast and easy . There was no need for soldering and the circuit could be reconfigured rapidly . A breadboard is a slab of plastic with rows of slots where pin leads could be inserted . Each row of breadboard slots is electrically connected internally . To connect two devices using a breadboard , the connected leads of both devices were inserted into a single row while their other leads were inserted otherwise . Jumper wires can be used to connect leads inserted into different terminals

The practicality of the breadboard is apparent when connecting ICs . ICs can simply be inserted along the middle spine ' of the breadboard and each pin of the IC automatically gets inserted into a distinct row of holes . Inserting the transistor was much harder as we found that the leads of the transistor don 't match up exactly to the spacing of the breadboard holes . As a result , we had to bend the pins of the transistor a little . Another practical feature of the breadboard is the long column of holes running along the sides . We used this to connect to the battery so that it is easy to tap out a line to Vcc or GND in any part of the breadboard along the length of this column

To find faults , the first thing to do is to check the connections of the circuit elements . This could be done easily using a digital multimeter with a connectivity function . To check the connectivity using the meter we only had to touch each probes to the terminals under check and listen for the beep which indicates connectivity . Aside from checking that the leads which need to be connected are connected , we also had to check that leads which are supposed to be disconnected remain disconnected . If ever we found a faulty connection , we reinserted the terminals to the breadboard until we got a better fit

We also had to make sure that the LED was connected correctly . Unlike ordinary bulbs , LED 's had to be connected a certain way . This is because as diodes , current can only flow along one direction in an LED . In connecting the LED , we made sure that the long lead was connected to the positive potential terminal and the short lead was connected to the terminal with negative potential . The positive terminal was...

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