Rate this paper
  • Currently rating
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
3.67 / 3
Paper Topic:

hematology Report




The term comes from a Greek word glukus ' which means sweet . It is an organic compound , a simple sugar (monosaccharide ) with a chemical formula C6H12O6 , which occurs widely in most tissues of plants and animals . A major source of energy in the body , glucose is the principal circulating sugar . It is also knows as D-glucose , D-glucopyranose , grape sugar , corn sugar , dextrose , and cerelose

Glucose , whether in free or combined form , is the most common of the sugars and the most abundant organic compound in nature . Grapes

, figs and other sweet fruits and honey had been found to have considerably high concentration content . It is also found , although in lesser concentrations , in animal body fluids such as in the blood and lymph Urine of diabetic patients usually contains 3-5

Absorbed into the bloodstream through the small intestine , it is carried through the portal vein to the liver wherein it is stored as glycogen The rest reenters to the circulatory system . Glycogen is also stored in the muscle tissue (See Glucose

Catalyst for : a major contributor in metabolism

Diss /Diseases

High Levels : diabetes mellitus

It is characterized by high levels of blood sugar (glucose , caused from defects in insulin secretion or action , or even both . In normal conditions , blood glucose levels are highly controlled by insulin , a hormone produced by the pancreas . Insulin helps lower the glucose level in the blood . In diabetic patients , the absence or insufficient production of insulin causes hyperglycemia . Although diabetes can be controlled , it is a chronic medical condition , which lasts a lifetime (See What is diabetes

Low Levels : hypoglycemia

This dis occurs when glucose levels falls too low resulting in the malfunction of cells . Symptoms develop such as cool skin , nervousness headache , confusion , convulsion or even coma

Control of its level and metabolism is greatly important

2 ) Urea Nitrogen (BUN


Urea is formed in the liver . It is a nitrogen-containing substance which is normally cleared into the urine from the blood by the kidney This was the first organic chemical compound that was synthesized Friedrich Wohler , a German chemist , who accidentally made urea while in the process of attempting to make ammonium cyanate from silver cyanide and ammonium chloride (See Definition of Urea . It is a small organic molecule composed of carbon , nitrogen , oxygen and hydrogen and is formed from ammonia in the kidney and liver (See What is Urea

BUN : stands for Blood Urea Nitrogen

This is a test that is used to measure the levels of urea in the blood When diseases occur in the kidney , which comprises its function will frequently lead to increased level in the blood . The BUN level in the blood can also rise among patients who are dehydrated . Urea nitrogen is a waste product of protein metabolism in the blood . This is a test that measures how much urea nitrogen remains in the blood that can be used as a test of renal function . Nevertheless , there are many factors aside from renal disease that can cause BUN alterations , including protein breakdown , hydration status and liver failure

Reference values of BUN

Adult : 7-20 mg /100 ml (men may have slightly higher values than women

Newborn : values slightly lower than adult ranges

Elderly : value slightly increase due to lack of renal concentration

Pregnancy : values decrease about 25

Values differ slightly from laboratory to laboratory for all tests

Catalyst for : the breakdown of protein during tissue metabolism

Diss /Diseases

Diseases or malfunction concerning the kidney often lead to increased blood levels of urea

High Levels : azotemia

Possible causes


Impaired renal function



Congestive heart failure as a result of poor renal perfusion

Excessive protein intake

Hemorrhage into the gastrointestinal tract

Low Levels

A low BUN may have little significance but can cause liver problems . A decreased BUN may be caused by over hydration . A person with syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic secretion (SIADH , an anti-diuretic hormone responsible for stimulating the kidney to conserve water causes high level of water retention in the bloodstream rather than excreted into the urine . SIADH can raise the BUN level , while important substances decrease because of the significant increase of fluid in the bloodstream

A decrease BUN level may be seen in : malnutrition , liver failure , over hydration , impaired nutrient absorption , anabolic steroid use (See Blood Urea Nitrogen BUN . Urea itself is non-toxic

3 . Creatinine


A creatine anhydride with chemical formula of C4H7N3O , is formed by the metabolism of creatine . Creatine is found in muscle tissue and blood it is excreted as a metabolic waste in the urine (See Creatinine

A small amount is actively secreted and mainly filtered by the kidney There is tubular reabsorption of creatinine but compensated by almost the same degree of tubular secretion

Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule , generated from muscle metabolism . About 2 of the body 's creatine is converted to creatinine every day . It is transported through the bloodstream to the kidneys

It is produced at a steady rate . Diet or normal physical activities have little effect on creatinine level . A malfunction of the kidney can decrease its level in the urine while raising its level in the blood (See Creatinine and Creatinine Clearance

Catalyst for : despite of being a waste , creatinine is vital for diagnostic function It is a reliable indicator of kidney function

Dis /Diseases

High Levels

This indicates a possible malfunction or failure of the kidneys . As the kidneys become impaired , creatinine level will rise . A high level suggests the following conditions of the kidney

-damage or swelling of the blood vessels in the kidneys known as glomerulonephritis

- Prostate disease , kidney stone or urinary tract obstruction

- Reduced blood flow to the kidney

Low Levels

It is a rare occurrence that low level of creatinine would appear , and are not usually a cause for concern . Low levels of creatinine can be seen with conditions that results in decreased muscle mass (See Creatinine : The Test

Low creatinine is seen in some severe liver diseases as it is also seen in debilitation (See Low Protein Diet Information for People with Kidney Diseases

Normal level for Adult males : approximately 0 .6 to 1 .2 milligrams (mg ) per deciliter (dl Adult females : 0 .5 to 1 .1 milligrams per deciliter

Elderly : may have less creatinine in their blood than the norm

Infants : 0 .2 or more depending on their muscle development

Person w / one kidney : 1 .8 or 1 .9

Creatinine levels that reach 2 .0 or more in babies and 10 .0 or more in adults may need to use a dialysis machine in to remove wastes from the blood (See Definition of Creatinine


Glucose . http /www .answers .com /glucose

What is diabetes . HYPERLINK "http /www .medicinenet .com /diabetes_mellitus /article .htm http /www .medicinenet .com /diabetes_mellitus /article .htm

Definition of Urea http /www .medterms .com /script /main /art .asp ?articlekey 5905

What is Urea . http /cahpwww .vet .upenn .edu /mun /mun_info .html

Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN . http /www .rnceus .com /renal /renalbun .html

Creatinine . American Heritage dictionaries http /www .answers .com /creatinine

Creatinine and Creatinine Clearance http /www .webmd .com /hw /lab_tests /hw4322 .asp

Creatinine : The Test http /www .labtestsonline .org /understanding /analytes /creatinine /test .htm l

Low Protein Diet Information for People with Kidney Diseases

http /www .geocities .com /HotSprings /Spa /3265 /lowp .html

See Definition of Creatinine http /www .medterms .com /script /main /art .asp ?articlekey 12550

4 ) BUN /Creatinin ratio


BUN-to-creatinine ratio 10 :1-201 (over 12 months of age

Up to 30 :1 (infants less than 12 months of age

(See Blood Urea Nitrogen

http /www .bchealthguide .org /kbase /medtest /aa36271 /results .htm

Dis /Diseases

High Level

High ratios occur with acute kidney failure , which could be caused by conditions such as shock or severe dehydration

Low Level

Can be associated with a diet low in protein , and severe muscle injury called rhabdomyolysis , pregnancy , cirrhosis , inadequate antidiuretic hormone secretion

(See BUN /Creatinine ratio

http /www .thedoctorslounge .net /nephrology /forums /backup /-6481 .html

5 ) Sodium


Sodium is deposited largely in the blood and in the fluid in the space surrounding the cells in our body . It is important in maintaining a normal fluid balance by all cells

Catalyst for : plays a key role in normal nerve and muscle function

Dis /Disease

Healthy kidneys must have a consistent amount of sodium in the body Excess amount is excreted in the urine . When the amount of sodium intake and loss are not in balance , the amount of water in the blood is affected

High Level : hypernatremia

Hypernatremia occurs when the sodium in the blood is too high . The amount of water is too little in relation to the amount of sodium . When sodium level becomes abnormally high , water loss exceeds sodium loss , as in dehydration . People who drink too little water , those who have diarrhea , vomiting , excessive sweating , fever and abnormal kidney function can cause hypernatremia . This can also occur in people with diabetes insipidus (wherein kidneys excrete too much water , it also include people with head trauma or neurosurgery involving the pituitary gland , diss of certain electrolytes such as high calcium or low potassium level , sickle cell disease , and the use of certain drugs like lithium or diuretics . This is common among older people


Excess sodium causes blood volume to increase . If the body accumulates high level of sodium , extra fluid is deposited in the surrounding space of the body 's cells . It causes swelling in the tissues especially in the feet and ankles

Low Level : hyponatremia

Hyponatremaia occurs when sodium has been over diluted in the body caused by enormous amount of water intake . Severe hyponatremia causes muscle twitching and seizures may occur , stupor , and can even lead to coma and death

A decrease of sodium from the body does not automatically cause the level of sodium in the blood to decrease but can cause blood volume to decrease . As blood volume decreases , blood pressure also decreases while heart rate increases . The person with low levels of sodium will experience light headedness and shock may sometimes occur . If there is a sudden drop of sodium level in the body , symptoms tend to develop rapidly and more severely . The brain is sensitive to the changes of the amount of sodium in the blood . Symptoms such as lethargy and confusion would usually occur first

(See Minerals and Electrolytes :Sodium

The Merck Manual of Medical Information-2nd Home Edition

HYPERLINK "http /www .merck .com /mmhe /print /sec12 /chl55 /chl55k .html http /www .merck .com /mmhe /print /sec12 /chl55 /chl55k .html

6 ) Potassium


This is the most abundant electrolyte stored in our intracellular fluid It is involved in regulating the neuromuscular activity of the skeletal smooth , and cardiac muscles

70 of the positive ions in the cells contain potassium . The cells in the body are essentially a bag of potassium salts . Other remaining positive ions are sodium , calcium , magnesium , argenine and other miscellaneous ions . The amino acids of proteins are charged by these positive ions

Catalyst for

-One of the most important roles for potassium is nerve transmission

-also known to be the activator for several enzyme systems for digestion and metabolism

(C . Weber . Roles of Potassium in the body

Reference : Weber , C . Roles of Potassium in the Body http /members .tripod .com charles_W /arthritis4 .html

-it helps regulate the activity of all muscle tissue (smooth muscles heart and skeletal muscles

-It is also part of homeostasis , the mechanism that maintains a balance between several ---electrical and chemical processes of the body

Dis /Disease

High Level : hyperkalemia

This is a condition which results from higher than normal levels of potassium in the bloodstream . This could be related to increase in body potassium or an excessive release of potassium from the cells into the bloodstream

It is normal for the kidney to excrete excess amount of potassium from the body . Therefore , hyperkalemia is usually caused by diss that reduce the kidney 's ability to excrete potassium

(See Hperkalemia

HYPERLINK "http /www .nlm .nih .gov /medlineplus /ency /article /001179 .htm Definition http /www .nlm .nih .gov /medlineplus /ency /article /001179 .htm Definition Low Level : hypokalemia

Hypokalemia results from low level of potassium , and severe cases can cause the heart to contract prematurely

Person with low level of potassium will usually experience the following symptoms

Irregularities in the heart 's rhythm

Muscle weakness because the decrease of electrolytes result in muscular malfunction

Muscle twitching

An increase in urination and thirst , because severe low potassium level can cause an inability for the kidneys to concentrate urine

Fatigue , anorexia and decreased bowel motility

Leg and abdominal cramps because of muscle malfunctions

If left untreated , can lead to respiratory arrest since the muscles that aid in breathing become weak

(See How to Understand the Effects of Low Potassium on the Body

HYPERLINK "http /www .ehow .com /how_13187_understand-effects-low .html http /www .ehow .com /how_13187_understand-effects-low .html

7 ) Calcium


This is a mineral found mainly in the hard part of bones . Cells called osteoblasts are responsible for adding calcium to the bones , while cells called osteoclasts removes calcium from the bones . Adequate intake is 1 ,200 milligrams /day for men and women 51 and older adults ages 19 to 50 need 1 ,000 milligrams /day and 1 ,300 milligrams /day for children ages 9-18 . Upper limit for calcium intake per day is 2 .5

(See Definition of Calcium

HYPERLINK "http /www .medterms .com /script /main /art .asp ?articlekey 2575 http /www .medterms .com /script /main /art .asp ?articlekey 2575

Ninety percent of calcium is deposited in our skeletal system . The remaining one percent is in the blood , the fluid surrounding the cells and the cell membranes themselves . Calcium not found in these places helps the body carry out vital reactions

Though it is most needed during growth , the body also needs a great amount of calcium later in life

Catalyst for

Calcium is needed in storing glycogen , the energy source for muscles . It is also important to muscle contractions . Calcium aids the nerves to relax and is a vital component of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord . It is an important ingredient in bile , which helps the body in digesting fats

It is necessary therefore in muscle contraction , heart action , nervous system maintenance and even for normal blood clotting

Dis /Diseases

High Level : hypercalcemia

This occurs when there is too much calcium in the blood and will need treatment . This is usually caused by


-Cancer , since it releases calcium into the blood or it would cause a hormone ------similar to PTH to increase the level of calcium



-Excess Vitamin D intake

-Kidney transplant


-High protein levels

(See Calcium

HYPERLINK "http /www .labtestsonline .org /understanding /analytes /calcium /test .html http /www .labtestsonline .org /understanding /analytes /calcium /test .html

When there is an excess amount of calcium in the blood , the extra calcium is deposited in damaged organs and arteries . Since calcium is a hard mineral , it causes the organs and arteries in which it has been deposited to harden as well . Arteriosclerosis is a disease caused by the hardening of the arteries

Low Level : osteoporosis

This is caused by calcium deficiency occurring at a later stage in life The bones become porous and brittle , therefore not as strong and can break under very little pressure . Women are prone to osteoporosis than men because of the loss of blood (which contains calcium ) in menstruation each month . Women also lose large amounts of calcium during pregnancy . What is dangerous about it is that there really isn 't a way to detect it . Warning signs include : backache , thigh bones aching back muscle spasms , difficulty in twisting and bending

If the body doesn 't get adequate amount of calcium needed during the growing up years , the bones will not form correctly . During adult years when the body is not getting enough calcium in the diet , the body takes calcium from the bones and uses it for the body

Another frightening aspect is when the bones doesn 't get enough calcium they use dangerous heavy metals to fill in the spaces ' or gap not filled by calcium . This condition can cause cancer

It is important to note that even if a person takes adequate amount of calcium , it doesn 't necessarily follow that the body is getting the full benefit . The following reasons can interfere with the body 's ability to absorb calcium

The simple carbohydrates from refined white sugar and white flour interferes with the hydrochloric acid in the stomach . The body needs hydrochloric acid in to utilize the calcium taken into the body

Not enough protein in the diet disables the body 's ability to absorb calcium properly

An imbalance of magnesium and phosphorous - 2 parts calcium with 1 part magnesium and 1 part phosphorous

(See Deficiency diseases and Good Nutrition : Calcium

http /waltonfeed .com /self /health /vit-min /calcium .html


indicates not having enough calcium in the blood or not having enough protein in the blood . Common causes of low levels especially low albumin . This can be caused by the following reasons

-low protein levels

-decreased levels of Vitamin D

-underactive parathyroid gland

-decreased dietary intake of calcium

-magnesium deficiency

-too much phosphorous

-acute inflammation of the pancreas

-bone disease



-chronic renal failure

(See Calcium

HYPERLINK "http /www .labtestsonline .org /understanding /analytes /calcium /test .html http /www .labtestsonline .org /understanding /analytes /calcium /test .html

8 ) Protein


The term comes from a Greek word prota ' which means of primary importance . These are large organic compounds that are made up of amino acids . These in turn are arranged in linear chain , and linked together by peptide bonds . Proteins are polymers , whose amino acids is specified by a gene . Proteins are essential components of all living organisms and it is involved in every process within every living cell

Catalyst for

-various proteins are enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions within the cell and also critical to metabolism

-It is also important in cell signaling , cell adhesion , and the cell cycle

-Proteins are the chief actors within the cell

(See Protein . From Wikipedia

HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Protein Cellular_functions http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Protein Cellular_functions

Dis /Diseases

High Level : Can lead to reproductive impairment

(A . Young . Excess Dietary Protein in Dairy Rations Can Impair Reproduction

HYPERLINK "http /extension .usu .edu /s /agpubs /protrepr .htm http /extension .usu .edu /s /agpubs /protrepr .htm

Low Level : A deficient protein will result in poor functioning of the detox system , necessary in maintaining good health . Low protein may mean low enzyme levels

(See Protein for Detoxification

HYPERLINK "http /www .bodyhealth .com /html /biobuilde /detox .asp http /www .bodyhealth .com /html /biobuilde /detox .asp

9 ) Bilirubin


A bile pigment which is reddish-yellow in color produced by the normal breakdown of hemoglobin , the oxygen-carrying part of the red blood cell The bilirubin is carried to the liver where it undergoes a change in form , then proceeds into the billiary system as bile . Bile is one of the digestive substance in the body . Bilirubin may be found in the bile blood or urine

This is a waste product resulting from the breakdown of hemoglobin molecules from worn out red blood cells . Usually , it is the chief component of bile as it is excreted from the body

Catalyst for

Dis /Diseases

High Level

Excess level of bilirubin will have a yellowish stain in the fatty tissues in the skin . This condition is known as jaundice

If the bloodstream contains very high level of bilirubin will cause permanent damage to certain areas in the brain of newborn infants called , kernicterus

(See Bilirubin

HYPERLINK "http /www .drhull .com /EncyMaster /B /bilirubin .html http /www .drhull .com /EncyMaster /B /bilirubin .html


This is a condition wherein there is too much bilirubin in the blood . As red blood cells break down , the substance bilirubin is formed . Babies had been found to be unable to get rid of the bilirubin causing build up in the blood and other tissues and fluids of the infant 's body . Large amounts of bilirubin can circulate to tissues in the brain and may cause seizures and brain damage , a condition called kernicterus

Symptoms include

-Yellow coloring of the skin


(See Hyperbilirubinemia and Jaundice

HYPERLINK "http /www .healthsystem .virginia .edu /uvahealth /peds_hrnewborn /hyperb .cf m http /www .healthsystem .virginia .edu /uvahealth /peds_hrnewborn /hyperb .cfmLow Level : hypobilirubinemia

This is an abnormal diminution of bilirubin in the blood

(See Dorland 's Medical Dictionary

HYPERLINK "http /www .mercksource .com /pp /us /cns /cns_hl_dorlands .jspzQzpgzEzzSzppdo cszSzuszSzcommonzSzdorlandszSzdorlandzSzdmd_h_21zPzhtm http /www .mercksource .com /pp /us /cns /cns_hl_dorlands .jspzQzpgzEzzSzppdoc szSzuszSzcommonzSzdorlandszSzdorlandzSzdmd_h_21zPzhtm

10 ) Alkaline Phosphatase


Alkaline phosphatase is `an enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the cleavage of orthophosphate from orthophosphoric monoesters under alkaline conditions . Differing forms of the enzyme occur in normal and malignant tissues

(See alkaline phosphatase

HYPERLINK "http /www .mercksource .com /pp /us /cns /cns_search_results .jsp http /www .mercksource .com /pp /us /cns /cns_search_results .jsp

This is a hydrolase enzyme which is responsible for removing phosphate groups in the 5- and 3- positions from various types of molecule Dephosphorylation is the process of removing the phosphate group . In humans , it is present in all tissues throughout the body but is concentrated more in liver , bile , duct , kidney , bone , and the placenta Alkaline phosphatases are most effective in an alkaline environment

Catalyst for : It catalyzes the hydrolysis of esters of phosphoric acid Phosphatase is also vital in the absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates , nucleotides , and phospholipids and in the calcification of the bone

(See American Heritage Dictionaries

HYPERLINK "http /www .answers .com /phosphatase http /www .answers .com /phosphatase

Dis /Diseases

High Level : hyperphosphatasemia

Described as having high levels of alkaline phosphatase in the blood

(See Dorland 's Illustrated Medical Dictionary

HYPERLINK "http /www .mercksource .com /pp /us /cns /cns_hl_dorlands .jspzQzpgzEzzSzppdo cszSzuszSzcommonzSzdorlandszSzdorlandzSzdmd_h_20zPzhtm http /www .mercksource .com /pp /us /cns /cns_hl_dorlands .jspzQzpgzEzzSzppdoc szSzuszSzcommonzSzdorlandszSzdorlandzSzdmd_h_20zPzhtm

It is unclear why alkaline phosphates increases , isoenzyme studies using electrophoresis can confirm the source of the ALP

Low Level : hypophosphatasia

This is a rare inherited metabolic disease characterized by a decreased tissue nonspecific alkaline phospahtase (TNSALP ) and defective bone mineralization . It can come in one of five forms : perinatal ,infantile childhood , adult and odontohypophosphatasia

As of now , there is no known cure for hypophosphatasia . But there are certain claims that choline may have positive health benefits , and taken as a dietary supplement

(See Hypophosphatasia . From Wikipedia

HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Hypophosphatasia http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Hypophosphatasia

11 ) Acid Phosphatase


This is a phosphate with optimum functioning at pH 5 .4 . It is present in the prostate gland

(See Houghton Mifflin Company

HYPERLINK "http /www .answers .com /acid-phosphatase http /www .answers .com /acid-phosphatase

It is stored in lysosomes and functions when these combine with endosomes , and has an acid pH optimum since these acidify while they function . Various forms are found in different organs , and their serum levels are used as a diagnostic for disease in the corresponding organs It is also called phosphomonoesterase

(See Acid Phosphatase . From Wikipedia

HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Acid_phosphatase http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Acid_phosphatase

Catalyst for : used to free phosphate groups from other molecules during digestion . It catalyzes the cleavage of orthophosphate from orthophosphoric monoesters under acid conditions

(See Dorland 's Illustrated Medical Dictionary

HYPERLINK "http /www .mercksource .com /pp /us /cns /cns_hl_dorlands .jspzQzpgzEzzSzppdo cszSzuszSzcommonzSzdorlandszSzdorlandzSzdmd_a_08zPzhtm http /www .mercksource .com /pp /us /cns /cns_hl_dorlands .jspzQzpgzEzzSzppdoc szSzuszSzcommonzSzdorlandszSzdorlandzSzdmd_a_08zPzhtm

Dis /Disease

High Level

Abnormally high level can lead to : prostatitis (swelling or infection in the prostate prostate cancer spreading to the bones Paget 's disease of bones

(See Acid Phosphatase

HYPERLINK "http /www .doctorndtv .com /s /details .asp ?id 75 http /www .doctorndtv .com /s /details .asp ?id 75

Low Level : found

13 ) Creatine Kinase (CK


This is also known as phosphocreatine kinase or creatine phosphokinase (CPK . It is an enzyme expressed by different tissue types . The CK enzyme is composed of two subunits : B (brain type ) or M (muscle type There are three different isoenzymes : CK-MM ,CK-BB and CK-MB . The chromosomes bear the genes for these subunits . Furthermore , there are two mitochondrial creatine kinases : the ubiquitous and sarcomeric form

Catalyst for : responsible in the catalysis of the conversion of creatine to phosphocreatine , consuming adenosine triphosphate (ATP ) while generating adenosine diphosphate (ADP , including the reverse reaction

Dis /Diseases

High Level

High level of CK is an indication of damage to muscle . It is indicative of injury , rhabdomyolysis

HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Myositis " \o "Myositis myositis , HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Myocarditis " \o "Myocarditis " myocarditis , HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Malignant_hyperthermia " \o "Malignant hyperthermia " malignant hyperthermia and HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Neuroleptic_malignant_syndrome " \o "Neuroleptic malignant syndrome " neuroleptic malignant syndrome .Excess level is also found in HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /McLeod_syndrome " \o "McLeod syndrome McLeod syndrome and HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Hypothyroidism " \o "Hypothyroidism hypothyroidism

(See Creatine Kinase . From Wikipedia

HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Creatine_kinase http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Creatine_kinase

Low Level

Low level of CK can be a sign of alcoholic liver disease caused by excessive intake of alcohol , and rheumatoid arthritis marked by stiffness and inflammation of the joints , weakness , loss of mobility and even deformity

(See Rheumatoid Arthritis

American Heritage Dictionaries . HYPERLINK "http /www .answers .com /rheumatoid-arthritis http /www .answers .com /rheumatoid-arthritis

14 ) GGT


GGT is usually regarded as one of the enzymes that shows cholestasis . As the values rise before liver damage becomes evident , this enzyme is important for the diagnosis of anicteric or symptomless forms of disease . If the level increases two-fold the normal level , parenchymal liver damage may be considered

(See GGT

HYPERLINK "http /www .diavant .us /diavant /CMSFront .html ?pgid 1 ,4 ,12 ,0 http /www .diavant .us /diavant /CMSFront .html ?pgid 1 ,4 ,12 ,0

Alternative names include : Gamma-GT GGTP GGT

GGT : stands for Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase

Catalyst for : participates in the transfer of amino acids along the cellular membrane and in glutathione metabolism . There is usual high concentration in the liver , bile ducts and in the kidney

Dis /Disease

High Level

Elevated GGT may indicate : cirrhosis , congestive heart failure , hepatic (liver , necrosis (tissue death , hepatic tumor , hepatitis , cholestasis (congestion of the bile ducts , or hepatotoxic drugs

Low Level

Decreased levels is a symptom found in hypothyroidism , hypothalamic malfunction and low level of magnesium

-Normal Adult Female Range : 0-45 U /L

-Optimal Female Reading : 22 .5

-Normal Adult Male Range : 0-65 U /L

-Optimal Male Reading : 32 .5

(See Hepatic Enzymes

HYPERLINK "http /www .dalesplace .net /lab_values .php http /www .dalesplace .net /lab_values .php

15 ) AST


AST is normally deposited in different tissues including the heart liver , muscle , kidney and brain . When any of these tissues are damaged AST is released into the serum . The level in serum rises in the occurrence of a heart attack and with muscle diss . It does not therefore , an exclusive indicator of liver injury

(See Normally , Where are the Aminotransferases

HYPERLINK "http /www .medicinenet .com /liver_blood_tests /page2 .htm http /www .medicinenet .com /liver_blood_tests /page2 .htm

AST : stands for aspartate aminotransferase

Other name : serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT

Catalyst for : Aminotransferases catalyze chemical reactions in the body 's cells . The amino group is transferred from a donor molecule to a recipient molecule and thus , the names aminotransferases

Dis /Diseases

Normal range of values for AST is from 5 to 40 units per liter of serum (the liquid part of the blood

(See Liver Blood Enzymes

HYPERLINK "http /www .medicinenet .com /liver_blood_tests /article .htm http /www .medicinenet .com /liver_blood_tests /article .htm

High Level

Very high levels of more than 20 times normal may indicate acute viral hepatitis , severe skeletal muscle trauma , drug-induced hepatic injury extensive surgery , and severe liver congestion . It may also indicate severe myocardial infarction (heart attack , alcoholic cirrhosis , or severe infectious mononucleosis

Low Level

Low levels may indicate meatstatic hepatic tumours , pulmonary emboli acute pancreatitis , alcohol withdrawal syndrome and steatosis (fatty liver

(See Liver Enzymes

HYPERLINK "http /home3 .inet .tele .dk /omni /alttest .htm ast http /home3 .inet .tele .dk /omni /alttest .htm ast

16 ) ALT


Is an enzyme which appears in liver cells . Lesser amounts can be found in the kidneys , heart , skeletal muscles , and the heart . The liver cells release ALT into the bloodstream , often before jaundice appears resulting in unusually high serum levels that may not return to normal for several days or weeks

Catalyst for

Dis /Diseases

High Level

When ALT levels reach a high level of up to 50 times normal , it suggests

viral or sever drug-induced hepatitis

severe hepatic congestion due to heart failure

Moderate elevations of ALT may be seen conditions that produces acute hepatocellular (liver cell ) injury , such as active cirrhosis , or alcholic hepatitis

Marginal elevations would sometimes occure in acute myocardial infarction (heart attack , which reflects secondary hepatic congestion

(See ALT or SGPT

HYPERLINK "http /home3 .inet .tele .dk /omni /alttest .htm ast http /home3 .inet .tele .dk /omni /alttest .htm ast

Low Level

17 ) Uric Acid


-It is an organic compound of carbon , nitrogen , oxygen and hydrogen

-Uric acid is a waste product usually found in the blood as a result of the breakdown of purines

(See `What is Uric Acid

HYPERLINK "http /arthritis .about .com /od /goutdiag /g /uricacid .htm http /arthritis .about .com /od /goutdiag /g /uricacid .htm

Catalyst for

Dis /Diseases

High Level : hyperuricemia

Indicated by high levels of uric acid in the blood . It is can either be caused by accelated generation of uric acid through purine metabolism or by a malfunction in the excretion in the kidney , or by high levels of fructose in the diet

(See Hyperuricemia

HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Hyperuricemia http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Hyperuricemia


Elevated blood levels of uric acid . Saturation or extremely high levels of uric acid in the blood may result in one form of kidney stones , when the urate crystallizes in the kidney . Some patients suffering from gout eventually suffer uric kidney stones

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

This is also associated with very high serum uric acid levels

(See Uric Acid . From Wikipedia

HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Uric_acid http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Uric_acid

Low Levels : hypouricemia

An abnormal reduction of uric acid concentration in the blood

(See Hypourecemia

HYPERLINK "http /medical-dictionary .thefreedictionary .com /hypouricemia http /medical-dictionary .thefreedictionary .com /hypouricemia

-Low uric acid value may be cause by

-Severe liver disease , heavy metal poisoning , Wilson 's disease or certain types of cancer

-Not enough protein in the diet

-Too much intake of aspirin

(See Uric Acid in Blood

HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Uric_acid http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Uric_acid

18 ) Iron


It is a trace element nutrient that the body utilizes for several discrete areas for normal health and function . The primary function of iron is in the formation of hemoglobin and myglobin

Catalyst for : essential to the formation and function of hemoglobin which in turn is responsible in carrying oxygen from the lungs to the tissues

(See Blood Chemistry Panel

HYPERLINK "http /www .wyominghealthfairs .com /s .htm http /www .wyominghealthfairs .com /s .htm

-Iron is also plays an important role in the regulation of the body 's response to low-oxygen condition or hypoxia

-It is also used by the body in many enzymes that are necessary for metabolism . Known as cytochromes , these enzymes are required for the metabolism and detoxification of several natural compounds in the body

(See The Roles of Iron in the BodY

HYPERLINK "http /www .beyondchange-obesity .com /medicalMatters /rolesOfIron .html http /www .beyondchange-obesity .com /medicalMatters /rolesOfIron .html

Dis /Diseases

High Level : hemochromatosis

A condition usually associated with too much iron in the body and could cause liver cancer , diabetes and impotence

(See One in Five Women Iron Deficient , Many Children Also at Risk

http /www .childrenshospital .org /newsroom /Site1339 /mainpageS1339P1sublev el69 .html

Other diss of high level : hemosiderosis , and siderosis

(See Iron

HYPERLINK "http /www .mercksource .com /pp /us /cns /cns_search_results .jsp http /www .mercksource .com /pp /us /cns /cns_search_results .jsp

Low Level : Iron deficiency This can cause a general lack of energy and tiredness , due to a lack of iron intake in the body anaemia

Symptoms of anaemia may be shortness of breath , palpitations such as rapid or irregular heartbeats , dizziness , lightheadedness . Other signs include poor concentration , and even behavior problems

(See Iron and your Body

HYPERLINK "http /www .mydr .com .au /default .asp ?article 546 http /www .mydr .com .au /default .asp ?article 546

19 ) Triglycerides


These are the chemical form in which most fat exists in food as well as in the body . It can also be found in blood plasma . Those that are found in plasma are taken from fats eaten from foods . This could also be made in the body from other energy sources such as carbohydrates . Calories that are not immediately utilized by tissues are converted to triglycerides and transported and stored in fat cells

(See Triglycerides

HYPERLINK "http /www .americanheart .org /presenter .jhtml ?identifier 4778 http /www .americanheart .org /presenter .jhtml ?identifier 4778

Catalyst for : plays an important role in metabolism as energy sources It is rebuilt in the blood from their fragments and become constituents of lipoproteins , which carries the fatty acids to and from fat cells among other functions

(See Metabolism

HYPERLINK "http /encyclopedia .thefreedictionary .com /Triglycerides http /encyclopedia .thefreedictionary .com /Triglycerides

Dis /Disease

High Level : hypertriglyceridemia

-Marked by an excess amount of triglucerides in the plasma . It is associated to the onset of coronary artery disease in some people

-Elevated levels could also be a consequence of other diseases such as untreated diabetes mellitus

Low Level : hypotriglyceridemia

This is due mostly to decrease in the concentration of plasma VLDL . This condition results from a decrease in the hepatic synthesis of triacylglycerol rather than from a greater catabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins

(M . Roberfroid . Prebiotics and Probiotics : are they functional foods

HYPERLINK "http /www .ajcn .org /cgi /content /full /71 /6 /1682S http /www .ajcn .org /cgi /content /full /71 /6 /1682S

21 ) HDL


This comprises a class of lipoproteins in different sizes (8-11 nm in diameter ) and contents . It carries cholesterol from the tissues in the body to the liver . HDL are the smallest and the densest of the lipoproteins . It contains the highest proportion of protein

HDL : stands for high-density lipoproteins

Catalyst for : remove cholesterol from atheroma within the arteries . It also transport it back to the liver for excretion or reutilization . This is why it is often called good cholesterol

(See High Density Lipoprotein . From Wikipedia

HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /High_density_lipoprotein Raising_HDL http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /High_density_lipoprotein Raising_HDL

Dis /Disease

High Level

High concentration of HDL have a protective action against cardiovascular diseases

Low Level

-Low concentration of HDL could pause risk factor for atherosclerotic diseases (which is the hardening and narrowing of the arteries caused by the arteries ' slow buildup of plaque inside its walls

(See What Is Atherosclerosis

HYPERLINK "http /www .nhlbi .nih .gov /health /dci /Diseases /Atherosclerosis /Atheroscle rosis_WhatIs .html http /www .nhlbi .nih .gov /health /dci /Diseases /Atherosclerosis /Atheroscler osis_WhatIs .html

-Low HDL levels can pose higher risk of heart disease

(See Genetic Detectives Find Source of Elevated Heart Disease Risk in Family with Healthy HYPERLINK "http /www .umm .edu /news /releases /heart_cholesterol .html http /www .umm .edu /news /releases /heart_cholesterol .html

22 ) LDL


These refers to a class of and range of lipoprotein particles with varied sizes (18-25 nm in diameter ) and contents . It carries fatty acid molecules in the blood and around the body , utilized by the body 's cells . Produced by the liver , LDL is the final stage of VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein . It is usually referred to as bad cholesterol ' because of its link between high LDL levels and cardiovascular disease

Catalyst for : transports cholesterol to the arteries

Dis /Disease

High Level

An increase in levels are associated with atherosclerosis , and consequently myocardial infarctions , strokes and peripheral vascular disease

(See Low Density Lipoprotein

HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Low_density_lipoprotein http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Low_density_lipoprotein

Low Level

There is a lower risk of heart attack and stroke if there is a lower level of LDL

(See What are Healthy Levels of Cholesterol

HYPERLINK "http /www .americanheart .org /presenter .jhtml ?identifier 183 http /www .americanheart .org /presenter .jhtml ?identifier 183

23 Definition

-It is a number that is useful in predicting atherosclerosis . The number is determined by dividing -A number of healthcare professionals use this ratio to assess the risk for developing heart disease

(See Cholesterol /Glucose Testing

HYPERLINK "http /www .tarrantcounty .com /ehealth /cwp /view .asp ?A 763 Q 433268 http /www .tarrantcounty .com /ehealth /cwp /view .asp ?A 763 Q 433268

Catalyst for : it is one of the classes of lipoproteins which carries cholesterol in the blood

Dis /Disease

High Level : high ratios could mean higher risk of heart attack

Low Level : low ratios indicate lower risk of heart diseaseses

high in ratio UNDESIRABLE

high HDL cholesterol and low ratios DESIRABLE

(G . Thomas . Heart Attack Prevention

HYPERLINK "http /www .medicinenet .com /script /main /art .asp ?articlekey 14631 http /www .medicinenet .com /script /main /art .asp ?articlekey 14631

24 ) Hemoglobin


It is contained in the body 's red blood cells . It is the protein molecule in the red blood cells . The red color of the blood is due to the iron contained in hemoglobin

Catalyst for : the molecules that transport oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood

Dis /Disease

High Level

Elevated level of hemoglobin can be found among people living at high altitudes and also in smokers . Other causes are lung disease , dis of the bone marrow known as polycythemia rubra vera , certain tumors over dosage of the drug Epogen usually done by athletes for blood doping purposes

(See Hemoglobin

HYPERLINK "http /www .medicinenet .com /hemoglobin /article .htm http /www .medicinenet .com /hemoglobin /article .htm

Low Level : anemia

Characterized by a low level of hemoglobin in the blood and usually have low red blood cell count and low hematocrit as well

(See Blood Chemistry Panel

HYPERLINK "http /www .wyominghealthfairs .com /s .htm http /www .wyominghealthfairs .com /s .htm

25 ) Hematocrit


This is the proportion of the blood that is made up of packed red blood cells . Hematocrit is expressed as a percentage by volume , with the red cells packed by centrifugation

(See Definition of Hematocrit

HYPERLINK "http /www .medterms .com /script /main /art .asp ?articlekey 3680 http /www .medterms .com /script /main /art .asp ?articlekey 3680

Catalyst for : responsible for nitric oxide scavenging by the red blood cells , along with oxygenation

(See Biol Chem

HYPERLINK "http /www .ncbi .nlm .nih .gov /entrez /query .fcgi ?db pubmed list_uids 16186 121 cmd Retrieve indexed google http /www .ncbi .nlm .nih .gov /entrez /query .fcgi ?db pubmed list_uids 161861 21 cmd Retrieve indexed google

Dis /Disease

High Level : high levels of hematocrit can be due to dehydration . It may also indicate that there too many red blood cells

Low Level : low levels of hematocrit can be a sign of anemia

(See The Multiphasic Blood Analysis

HYPERLINK "http /www .health .wvu .edu /multiphasic /multiphasic .htm http /www .health .wvu .edu /multiphasic /multiphasic .htm

26 ) Red and White Blood Cell Counts


Red blood cells- the most common type of blood cell and the body 's principal means of delivering oxygen from the lungs to body tissues thru the blood

(See Red Blood Cell . From Wikipedia

HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Red_blood_cell http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Red_blood_cell

White blood cells- have five different types : lymphocytes , neutrophils eosinophils , basophils , and monocytes . Each type play a different role in protecting the body from infection

Catalyst for

Red blood cells- carry oxygen to tissues throughout the body

White blood cells- kill and digest bacteria

(See Bone Marrow Diss

HYPERLINK "http /www .leukemia-lymphoma .org /all_mat_toc .adp ?item_id 9955 http /www .leukemia-lymphoma .org /all_mat_toc .adp ?item_id 9955

Dis /Disease

High Level

Red Cells : polycythemia vera - red blood cell production is increased as a result of an acquired stem cell mutation . The increase in red blood cells leads to hyperviscosity characterized by a thickening of the blood than what is normal

(See Polycythemia Vera

HYPERLINK "http /www .leukemia-lymphoma .org /all_mat_toc .adp ?item_id 9955 http /www .leukemia-lymphoma .org /all_mat_toc .adp ?item_id 9955

White Cells : Leukocytosis- refers to an increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood

Leukemia and lymphoma- are two types of cancer wherein the white blood cells multiply out of control

(See White Blood Cells

HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /White_blood_cell http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /White_blood_cell

Low Level

White blood cells : leucopenia - a low white blood cell count which can lead to infection especially for people under cancer treatment

Red blood cells : anemia - low level of hemoglobin and the body works much harder to supply oxygen to the body 's tissues . This can result in feelings of fatigued and shortness of breath

(See Low Blood Cell Counts : Side Effect of Cancer Treatment

HYPERLINK "http /www .mayoclinic .com /health /cancer-treatment /CA00066 http /www .mayoclinic .com /health /cancer-treatment /CA00066

27 ) Thyroxin (T4


A tyrosin-based hormone produced by the thyroid gland . T4 is a major form of thyroid hormone in the blood , which is converted to T3 within the cells through deiodinases

Catalyst for

-acts on the body to increase the basal metabolic rate , also affects protein synthesis and help increase the body 's sensitivity to catecholamines

(See Thyroxine

HYPERLINK "http /dictionary .laborlawtalk .com /thyroxine http /dictionary .laborlawtalk .com /thyroxine

-helps in regulating the energy production in the body

(See Thyroxin

HYPERLINK "http /www .american-depot .com /services /resources_gl_t .asp http /www .american-depot .com /services /resources_gl_t .asp

-increase basal metabolic rate in cells in the body

-boost protein synthesis

-increase heart rate and blood flow to other organs

-increase the carbohydrate and fat metabolism

Dis /Disease

High Level : hyperthyroidism /thyrotoxicosis

Is caused by an overactive thyroid gland and therefore releases too much T3 and T4 into the blood Low Level : hypothyroidism

This is an opposite condition of hyperthyroidism . This occurs when the thyroid fails to produce enough T3 and T4 into the bloodstream and metabolism becomes slow causing physical and emotional changes

(See Thyroid Diss Fact

HYPERLINK "http /www .abc .net .au /health /library /thyroid_ff .htm http /www .abc .net .au /health /library /thyroid_ff .htm

28 ) Ammonia


It is a toxic substance taken from the metabolism of proteins . Ammonia is converted to urea by the liver . Urea is water soluble and non-toxic and released by the kidneys . Dysfunction of the liver can lead to its inability to convert ammonia , causing a build-up in the blood

(See The Liver and Metabolism

HYPERLINK "http /www .hepcuk .info /data /usercontentroot /home /hepatitis 20c /the 20li ver /how 20the 20livers 20functions 20are 20affected 20by 20hcv /Matabolis m 20of 20Carbohydrates 20Fats 20and 20Proteins .asp http /www .hepcuk .info /data /usercontentroot /home /hepatitis 20c /the 20liv er /how 20the 20livers 20functions 20are 20affected 20by 20hcv /Matabolism 20of 20Carbohydrates 20Fats 20and 20Proteins .asp

Dis /Disease

High Level : hepatic coma (hepatic encephalopathy

This is a brain and nervous system damage that occurs because of liver diss . Neurological symptoms include changes in reflexes , changes in consciousness and behavior changes ranging from mild to severe

(See hepatic encephalopathy

HYPERLINK "http /health .allrefer .com /health /hepatic-encephalopathy-info .html http /health .allrefer .com /health /hepatic-encephalopathy-info .html


accumulation of ammonia in the blood

(See Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTC

HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Ornithine_transcarbamylase_deficiency http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Ornithine_transcarbamylase_deficiency

Low Level : hypoammonemia

Characterized by low level of ammonia in the body


PAGE 11 ...

Not the Essay You're looking for? Get a custom essay (only for $12.99)