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Paper Topic:

The dopamine neurotransmitter system has been implicated in a variety of diss including schizophrenia, drug addiction, and Parkinsons disease. Why is it that dopamine can be involved in such a wide variety of diss that have such different sympto

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Dopamine : The Neurotransmitter

Introduction

The phenomenon of the existence of our mind and consciousness is brought about by the fact that all functions elicited by the human body is brought about by complex neurochemical functioning of the brain (Frisch and Frisch 15 . The brain is the master organ because it controls the functions of other organs . From the various movements done by our muscles , the different sensations we experience as well as the emotions we feel are made possible by

the numerous processes being undergone by the brain (Frisch and Frisch 15

The brain is made up of different parts that are responsible in generating the functions of the brain . These different components of the brain are important for they act hand- in- hand so that the brain can perform its proper functions . The brain controls the central nervous system via the cranial nerves , spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system (Frisch and Frisch 16 . It is accountable for different voluntary and involuntary movements such as perception , behaviors , reflexes instincts , emotions and thinking

Within the brain , there is the presence of several neurotransmitters These neurotransmitters act as messengers that carry out and deliver the messages between neurons . Their main functions are to relay , increase and adjust signals between the brain cells and other cells . They are located at the synapse of each neuron (Luckman 651

There are many types of neurotransmitters present in the brain . Their major divisions are amino acids , peptides and monoamines . Some of the more popular types of neurotransmitters are acetylcholine , epinephrine serotonin and dopamine . Among these mentioned neurotransmitters probably the one which produces many various effects is dopamine (Frisch and Frisch 16

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter which is a derivative of the amino acid tyrosine . It is produced by neurons located at the Substantia Nigra , the part of the brain also known as Black Substance . The Substantia Nigra is found at the Basal Ganglia which are group of structures in the midbrain (Luckman 651 . Dopamine is a monoamine formed by the decarboxylation of dopa and is very essential to the normal functioning of the central nervous system . Decarboxylation starts when tyrosine is changed to from dopa that in turn removes carbon dioxide from dopa to form dopamine

Dopamine is responsible for many vital brain functions . The dendrites of dopamine affect various regions of the bran thus controlling different functions . Dopamine influences a wide variety of brain processes . These brain processes have important role in behavior and cognition , motor activity , motivation and reward , sleep , mood , attention , learning perception of pain and pleasure , and regulation of milk production (Luckman 652

Dopamine is a sympathomimetic catecholamine . It exhibits alpha and beta adrenergic agonism . Dopamine can have either an excitatory or inhibitory effects . It can either bring about action potential or inhibit it Dopamine travels via the presynaptic going to the postsynaptic neuron

The abnormal levels of dopamine the brain can cause massive destruction to the brain thus causing enormous deterioration...

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