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Paper Topic:

cellular pathology

Running head : APPLICATION OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY

The Application of Immunohistochemistry in Cellular Pathology

MACROBUTTON NoMacro [Insert Names of Author (s ) here]

MACROBUTTON NoMacro [Insert Institution information here]

The Application of Immunohistochemistry in Cellular Pathology

Introduction

Cellular pathology is a scientific field that studies changes of the morphology of cells during disease processes . Focus of this practice is the understanding of the mechanisms by which this disease processes occur in cellular and molecular level . The emergence of immunohistochemistry proved to be of value in cellular pathology for the delivery of good

clinical care because immunohistochemistry enables cellular pathology practitioners to understand the detailed mechanisms that occurs during disease progression thus allowing the establishment of prompt treatments to stop the on going changes that occurs in disease processes . Ruling out of differential diagnosis by immunohistochemistry techniques allows the conduct of the clinical diagnosis with appropriate critical evidences

Immunohistochemistry is a combination of immunological , anatomical , and biochemical techniques . This is a scientific field that utilizes the use of markers like enzymes , fluorescent dyes , radioactive element , and colloidal gold to view the antigen-antibody interactions that are produced through the localization of antigens in sections of tissue using specific reagent that are labeled antibodies . History of the first use of labeled antibodies with fluorescent dye was dated back in 1941 when Coons and his colleagues used it to identify the antigens in sections of tissue ADDIN EN .CITE 2Introduct ion to Immunohistochemistry2007Novemb er 72007IHC World LLChttp /www .ihcworld .com /_intro /i ntro .htm "Introduction to Immunohistochemistry " 2007 . Immunohistochemistry (ICH ) has continued to expand and develop from that point in time up to now . The specificity of the technique makes it a suitable tool in diagnosis and prognosis that are done in cellular pathology

Diagnosis

In the past , cellular pathology diagnosis utilizes only staining techniques like the Hematoxylin-Eosin (H E ) stain . Various problems are encountered by the pathologist when using only the staining method for diagnosis . Such problems are when distortion of tissue sample and uninformative cellular morphology is encountered . This remained to be a pathologist 's dilemma until the advent of technology new techniques such as IHC which is now also utilized as diagnostic tools Immunohistochemistry enables immunophenotyping of lymphomas that are non-Hopkins as well as the identification of following tumor types those that can not be diagnosed using only conventional diagnostic skills of a pathologist because the tumors are in anaplasia or with morphologically poor preservation and tumor cells in small numbers that will not allow identification with the aide of staining techniques ADDIN EN .CITE Mason19877 7717Mason , Dy Gatter KCThe Role of Immunocytochemistry in Diagnostic PathologyJournal of Clinical PathologyJournal of Clinical Pathology987http /ww w .pubmedcentral .nih .gov /picrender .fcgi ?artid 1141172 blobtype pdf (Mason , 1987

Immunohistochemistry employs antibodies that will interact with the antigens present in examined tissues and serve as markers for the diagnosis of the alterations that happen in the affected cells . Examples of antibody markers widely used in immunohistochemistry are : Vimentin used in sub-typing carcinomas S100 protein , for screening of melanocytic...

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