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Paper Topic:

Is Working Backwards More Effective?

Is Working Backwards More Effective

On January 8 , 2002 , President George W . Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB ) into law , beginning the era of accountability This law requires that states , school district , superintendents schools , principals , and teachers be held accountable for the overall achievement of all students . In the past the academic achievement of minorities , exceptional education , limited-English proficiency , and low socio-economic students was often overlooked . These overlooked students were not receiving the proper education they deserve . In this new era states and school districts are

accountable for the achievement of not only these students but of all students with whom they encounter and must track the students progress through the Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP ) formula

To increase student achievement extensive instructional planning required . If one fails to plan , then one plans to fail ' is the proverb that is resounded throughout the education world . School districts typically instruct teachers to apply the most recent planning model within their classroom without questioning the usefulness of the model in improving student academic achievement . The purpose of this study is to determine whether the Madeline Hunter Decision Making Model or the backwards design approach is more effective in increasing student academic achievement

The intent of school is not to cover content but to enable students to apply the content in the world beyond the school . Therefore , students must learn for understanding rather than for coverage . Learning for understanding requires the curriculum and instruction address three different but interrelated...

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