Why was the Pantheon of Rome such an important and influential building? From what kind of structue did it evolve, and why was concrete so important to its construction? What is meant by `screen architecture`?. Discuss the building in general and then des
The Pantheon in Rome is one of the most beautiful and well preserved of all ancient buildings Originally built as a temple to the seven deities of the seven planets the first Pantheon was built during the third consulship of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa . Some say Appollodorus of Damascus designed the Pantheon . It was rebuilt in 120 A .D . by Emperor Hadrian after it was destroyed by fire . The entrance was moved to the other side , as Hadrian built a new fazade for the building and preserved its original inscription , M ?AGRIPPA ?L
Originally built as a temple to the seven deities of the seven planets the first Pantheon was built during the third consulship of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa . Some say Appollodorus of Damascus designed the Pantheon . It was rebuilt in 120 A .D . by Emperor Hadrian after it was destroyed by fire . The entrance was moved to the other side , as Hadrian built a new fazade for the building and preserved its original inscription , M ?AGRIPPA ?L
?F ?COS ?TERTIUM ?FECIT ' which meant , Marcus Agrippa , son of Lucius , during his third consulate , built this ' In 202 A .D . Septimus Severus and his son , Caracalla , restored the Pantheon to its former glory . After the Pantheon was closed in the 5th century , in 609 A .D . the building was given by Emperor Phocas of Byzantine to Pope Boniface IV , and the building was converted to a Roman Catholic Church dedicated to Our Lady of all Martyrs
The conversion of the Pantheon from a pagan temple to a Roman Catholic Church saved it from being destroyed . In 663 A .D . Emperor Constans II stripped Rome of its bronze and precious stone , including some of the bronze from the Pantheon 's roof . Pope Gregory III clad the roof with lead in 735 A .D . When the papacy moved to Avignon during the Great Schism , the Pantheon fell into disrepair . It was used as a fortress and a poultry market . It returned to its former glory when the Pope returned to Rome . It was used as a parish church from the 10th century until 1824
Pope Urban VIII had the ceiling of the Pantheon 's portico , which was gilded with bronze , melted to make bombards for the fortification of the Castel Sant ' Angelo . Pope Urban VIII also installed two bell towers called ass ears ' for their shape (the towers were taken down in 1883
Today , Pantheon also serves as a tomb of famous people . Raphael Annibale Caracci , and architect Baldassare Peruzzi are buried there together with Italian royals , namely , Vittorio Emanuele II , Umberto I and his queen , Margherita . The building is now under the care and responsibility of the Soprintendenze . Since 1929 , the Pantheon has also been used the seat of the Military Ordinary of Italy
The Pantheon in Rome remains to be one of the most exceptional buildings of Ancient Rome and is a stunning example of Roman architecture not just because of its size , but because according to Rudolph Wittkower , it was and remained of course the most influential classical building
The Pantheon has a classical portico-and-dome structure . The screen architecture used in the building can be seen in the structure of the entrance portico which has sixteen granite columns . This colonnade screen is composed of sixteen columns made of granite with eight columns in the front row and two rows of four columns for the second and third rows . The building is primarily circular with a circular...
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