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Paper Topic:

Western Civilization II

1 . How did developments in the Balkans lead to the outbreak of the war What was the role of Serbia ? Austria ? Russia ? What was the aim of German policy in July 1914 ? Did Germany want a general war

The Balkans is the historic name given to the states in southeastern Europe . Only five states in the Balkans were free from being ruled by Turkey . The people that lived in these areas were considered Slavs . Once Turkey stopped ruling these five states , they wanted to save the remaining states under Turkish rule . The movement

was called the Pan-Slavism movement . This movement wanted to unite all of the Slavs including Russia , and break down Turkey and Austria-Hungary . Because Austria wanted to disable the movements of Slavs , they annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina . The Balkan Wars prepared the way for World War I by satisfying some of the aspirations of Serbia and thereby giving a great impetus to the Serbian desire to annex parts of Austria-Hungary by alarming Austria and stiffening Austrian resolution to crush Serbia and by giving causes of dissatisfaction to Bulgaria and Turkey ( Balkan Wars ' 2007

In July 1914 , Germany sought war and started what we called now the World War I . The German policy at that tome was centered on the following : a )illustrating Russia as the aggressor , b ) an Austrian ultimatum to Serbia had to be designed to preclude a negotiated settlement , c ) Italy had to be convinced to join the German side through whatever means and d ) as many secret military measures as possible had to be taken to facilitate mobilization once it was announced . Generally , Germany with its goals was evidently setting the stage for a successful general war (Copeland 2001 pp . 85-87

2 . Assess the settlement of Versailles . What were its good points ? Bad points ? Was the peace too harsh or too conciliatory ? Could it have ensured peace in Europe ? How might it have been improved

The Treaty of Versailles seemed to satisfy only the "Big Three " which are Britain , France and America . For France , it appeared as if Germany had been smashed for Britain , it was satisfied that enough of Germany 's power had been left to act as a buffer to communist expansion from Russia and for America , it was just happy that the proceedings were over . They kept Germany weak yet strong enough to stop the spread of communism . They kept the French b safe from another German attack and created the organization , the League of Nations , whose was to end warfare throughout the world . However , it left a mood of anger throughout Germany as it was felt that as a nation Germany had been unfairly treated . Above all else , Germany hated the clause blaming them for the cause of the war and the resultant financial penalties the treaty was bound to impose on Germany . Those who signed it became known as the "November Criminals .Many German citizens felt that they were being punished for the mistakes of the German government in August...

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