VOCATIONAL EDUCATION The term education is derived from the Latin word e-ducere which means to lead out (Brumbaugh Lawrence , 1963 . With this meaning in mind , the process of education seems simplistic . However , many different theories exist on which way is the best way to instill education in children , as well as adults . Most educational philosophers believe that education is a lifelong process . The educational process begins once a child is born , but the formal educational process in the United States begins when a child enters Kindergarten , usually at the age of
The term education is derived from the Latin word e-ducere which means to lead out (Brumbaugh Lawrence , 1963 . With this meaning in mind , the process of education seems simplistic . However , many different theories exist on which way is the best way to instill education in children , as well as adults . Most educational philosophers believe that education is a lifelong process . The educational process begins once a child is born , but the formal educational process in the United States begins when a child enters Kindergarten , usually at the age of
Traditional education philosophies rely on a teacher-centered method of instruction . Traditional methods have long been supported by education philosophers and researchers from Aristotle to Jeanne Chall and E .D Hirsch . Jeanne Chall is a reading specialist at Harvard University School of Education . Chall states that teacher-centered learning helps all students achieve much better than student-centered methods and in fact the latter can even cause harm (Chall , 2000 . Traditional education is based on two distinct philosophies : educational essentialism and educational perennialism . Educational essentialism is a theory that holds that traditional and basic subjects should be taught in a progressive (Goldberg , 1997 . Educational perennialism is a manner concentrating on the less complex skills and progressing to the more advanced skills . E .D . Hirsh , a popular educational essentialist favors whole-class instruction most of the time and sees nothing wrong with drill and practice theory that states that the skills that are of everlasting importance is what education should focus on . Both educational essentialism and educational perennialism are teacher centered theories . However , educational perennialism focuses on personal development as opposed to essential skills
In addition to being teacher-centered , traditional education philosophies group children by age and ability in a classroom with the majority of the coursework being performed at a desk through direct instruction , lectures , listening , and observation . The coursework is based on textbooks and the subjects taught are independent of each other , for example math and reading . In the traditional education model , students choose a track of courses that is best suited to their abilities and career objectives . The traditional teacher-centered methods also require students to address the teacher formally as a respected role model . Achievement and successful completion of each subject in the traditional education model is measured by a series of grades , denoted by the letters A-F , A being the highest grade possible and F being the lowest grade possible
In contrast to traditional education philosophies , student-centered theories have emerged . These student-centered theories are centered on the belief that humans learn best when taught through real-life activities with other people . This belief is commonly referred to as educational progressivism , and was developed by Francis Parker and John Dewey . Unlike traditional education , progressive education groups children by interest or ability and utilizes multi-aged classrooms . The progressive curriculum focuses on hands-on activities and student-led discoveries . The coursework is based on projects rather than textbooks and the subjects taught are integrated with each other , for example reading a...
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