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Paper Topic:

Types of Norms - Folkways

This challenges the conception of self-esteem and motivation of western psychology , making the concept less universal as it was previously thought to be

According to Marcus and Kitayama (1991 , Western psychology had construed the self as independent , egocentric , and autonomous , however Asians and in a sense , Asian Americans have an interdependent construal of the self . This would mean that for Asian Americans , the self cannot exist without the other , the Asian American is nothing without his /her family , his /her identity is always tied to his /her family , culture and ancestors

. As such , when an American is asked to describe him /her self in relation to others , the self is more vividly described , have more details and is known more than the other is . With Asian Americans , the self is described always in relation to the other , the other is given more importance and detail to explain how similar the self is from the other , not to differentiate the self from the other . For example , the independent self would claim to be a unique entity , different from others , of value and importance for being unlike others , the interdependent self on the other hand would claim to be similar to or like the general group , shares the same goals and values and always refer to oneself as a member of society or family , not a separate individual

It is without a doubt that western psychology cannot understand explain , predict , and control all behavior of all people there is a need to recognize that western psychology is a limited body of knowledge that may be applicable only to where it was developed and observed


Kitayama , S , Markus , H .R , Matsumoto , H Norasakkunit , V (1997 Individual

and collective processes in the construction of the self : Self enhancement in the United States and...

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