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Paper Topic:

Theoretical Position

The Ideas of Various Psychologists

In the twentieth century , psychology as a discipline has benefited from the expertise of several men and visionaries who contributed greatly to the discipline . Among these are Sigmund Freud , Carl Jung , Alfred Adler and William James . This essay seeks to look into their central ideas regarding the causes and nature of human psychological functioning

Although Sigmund Freud appeared to have been preoccupied with the libido , perhaps his greatest contribution to psychology is his theory of the unconscious mind . Through this theory , he postulated that there are

several layers in the psychological functioning of humans and that it is not only the conscious and the obvious that control behavior . Rather what is unsaid , what is suppressed is also a powerful shaper of behavior and actions . It is not only the recognition of the unconscious that sets Freud apart as a psychologist of his age , rather he also sought ways in which to study and explain the unconscious and how it affects human behavior and action

Carl Jung , on the other hand , also touched upon the unconscious as the subject of his study . He advocated for the exploration of dreams religion , philosophy , and even art and mythology . In addition to the unconscious , he sought to integrate the spiritual into the unconscious He did not believe that psychology could only be explored through hard science and the faculties of logic . Instead , he sought for balance and harmony . Just like Freud , he explored on the unconscious realm of the human psyche , he made his main additions , however , in going beyond hard science in the study of the field

Freud and Jung have another contemporary in the person of Alfred Adler who also advocated and worked on the unconscious . Adler , however , has a greater impact in the development of psychotherapy and counseling . He however , did not only deal with the personal level of the psyche , he also looked at social equality as one of the variables that could prevent illnesses of the mind . Alongside this social aspect of psychology , he explored the dynamics of power relationships in the society

William James also contributed to the developing science of psychology by exploring mysticism and religion . He looked into the nature of truth and argued that nature could not really be frozen in space and time Rather , truth depends on its usefulness in the person who believes it James also developed the concept of stream of consciousness as a way to describe the way that the world and the mind of the individual are connected . This concept is also resonant of the idea of the unconscious as an important factor in determining and explaining human behavior and action

Freud , Jung , Adler and James all contributed to the development of psychology as a science . The overarching concept that may be seen as uniting these great men is the centrality of the unconscious in the psychological function of humans . It was Freud who first postulated this idea . Jung then built on the foundation built...

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