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Paper Topic:

Shift Work

Running head : Shift Work

Shift Work

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Humans are a diurnal type , routinely awake and active during the day and sleeping at night . Though , modern society has altered this normal state for many workers . Various shift work schedules ranging from permanent or fixed night shifts to several different types of rotating shifts are at present used in a wide range of facilities and industries that need round-the-clock operation . Not astonishingly , a large amount of research has been devoted

to examining the effects of shift work on sleep alertness , performance , health , and well-being . One main concern with shift work is the impact of working at different times of the 24-hr day on the workers ' ability to sleep

In permanent shifts , the most important influence is the time of day that the shift takes place . The time of day that work is required can unconstructively impact endogenous circadian rhythms making it hard for the workers to sleep during off-duty times . The capability to sleep while working rotating shifts is influenced by several factors , one of which is the time of day . Rotating shifts are as well influenced by the speed of shift rotation and the direction of shift rotation . Besides the length of the shift may influence sleep in both permanent and rotating shifts . Conceivably the clearest finding from the literature is that working the night shift is linked with problems in sleeping and with on-duty alertness . Known the 24 /7 needs of modern society , though shift work including night shifts is necessary . What is required is a compromise that minimizes the unconstructive effect of shift work on the worker (Penn PE , Bootzin RR , 19900

Studies of work shifts normally fall into two categories (1 ) Possible effects on the worker for instance health , family relations , attitudes , and further subjective factors and (2 ) Effects on the organization for instance production , absenteeism and accidents

Increased understanding of the effects of work shifts on human performance and productivity is desirable , not merely for the reason that many industries have to operate on a 24-hour day , but as well because others are extending the operating day to attain greater cost effectiveness in the use of the physical plants ' productive capacities

This is not to say that shift-work experiences are missing , however rather that there are too few industrial and field studies of the effects of shift work on productivity . For instance , Owen ( 1976 , on the basis of Department of Labor statistics , reports that in the United States about one in every 6 fulltime nonagricultural workers is on shift work (that is has a regular 8-hour workday at least part of which is outside the 7 :00 a .m . to 6 :00

.m . time interval . More than 1 in every 4 blue-collar workers in manufacturing and mining are on shift work among the males in this category , about thirty percent are on shift work . Also , shift work occurs in all sections of the country...

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