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Paper Topic:

The Role the Enlightenment and Counter Enlightenment in the development of early sociology.

Running Head : Enlightenment and Counter Enlightenment

The Role the Enlightenment and Counter Enlightenment in the Development of Early Sociology





1 . Enlightenment is merely about the resistance for Christianity Different scholars or thinkers such as Michel de Montaigne , Jean-Jacques Rousseau , and Voltaire make way to establish different forms of beliefs to demote Christianity . It is also known as the French-Enlightenment that characterizes liberalism and individualism . Enlightenment appears to be a form of critical thinking that emerged during the conflict between Christian doctrine and its

basis of truth . It is a way of scientific revolution ' because it gives rational and scientific ideas that give factual arguments as a base of attack to Christianity or the church

Before the time of Enlightenment , people were thought to be righteous in a Christian way where they should always pay and praise their God for it is the foundation of goodness but because different thinkers emerged during those times , people became educated . They were educated that Christianity is not the answer to all the questions , confusions , and sufferings in the world . It is also their way of establishing different forms of religious beliefs to attack Christianity 's weak ' foundation The reason for the philosopher 's opposition to Christianity was the definition and of authority ' and frail justification of church towards revelation

2 . Counter-Enlightenment argued the concept of French-Enlightenment Because Enlightenment focused its attention to the rationality of belief , Counter-Enlightenment made by the church defends their argument towards rationality of belief . For them , if thinkers of Enlightenment want to diminish Christianity then what will happen to Christians According to them , Protestantism is not the answer for the concept of rationality because it does not have enough evidence that will answer the flaws of Christianity

According to the argument of Counter-Enlightenment , democrats scientists , lawyers , intellectuals , journalists , Protestants , Jews Jansenists , and atheists are the sleepless enemies who never stopped bothering the essence of society . Therefore , it only implies that any form of belief and justification that is not based on Christian doctrine is a form of evil that manifests the religious living of the society The argument of Enlightenment did not helped people to be enlightened because it made people 's religious belief more irrational by having different kinds of belief without any logical argument on what is good and evil

3 . Auguste Comte 's sociological theory explained the concept of Enlightenment and Counter-Enlightenment through the three stages of law - theological , metaphysical , and positivistic where they were all characterized by structural and spirit conditions such as the supernatural , fundamental essences , and positive philosophy of science These three stages of law signify the connection of both Enlightenment and Counter-Enlightenment . The concept of Enlightenment has its metaphysical and positivistic point of view while the Counter-Enlightenment has its theological and metaphysical point of view . Both Enlightenment and Counter-Enlightenment has it metaphysical aspect because though Enlightenment do not believe in Christianity , it brings Protestantism that also believed in a god , which is the same as Christianity who...

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