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Unit A : What are rights

Moral and legal rights : A human right on moral ground is shared and viewed as a justified /unjustified conduct of human behavior resulting either on good side or bad side in a scenario whereas a legal right is governed by a set of civil ' or constitutional ' rights within the limitations legal systems or purview of national and international court of law and justice

Human rights in UK : UK national law is governed by Human Rights Act 1998 which is practiced by local courts and tribunals . The provisions

br laid down in the Act are at par with European Convention on Human Rights

Who has rights

Every individual in society irrespective of age , gender and racial discrimination is entitled to exercise a potential right for common living . Human rights in international society are the basis to provide safety , freedom and security in respect of social , moral and ethical grounds of human existence and a meaningful exercise for dignified and decent code of living . In political context , Governments frame human rights in reference to the respective country , according to the culture traditions and economies . In general , some of the common human rights are viz , right to speech , religion , voting etc

International Human Rights : The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948 ) has set more than twenty four specific human rights that are adaptable globally , while being protective , respective and safeguarding the interests of common man . Specific Rights are further divided into six categories . viz

Security rights : Protect people against crimes e .g , murder , massacre torture etc

Due process rights : Protect against abuses of legal systems viz imprisonment , secret trials and punishments

Liberty rights : Protect freedom of belief , expression etc

Political rights : To take part in politics through communication protesting

voting or serving in a public office

Equality rights : Promise of equality in law , citizenship nondiscrimination etc

Social or welfare rights : To provide education to children and protect from famine and


Specialists in Human Rights : United Nations has three important human agencies viz (1 ) High Commissioner for Human Right (OHCHR (2 ) Human Rights Council (3 ) Security Council

Universal application vs . cultural specificity

Each nation 's court of law is promulgated in accordance with the enactments made taking view of regional geographics , cultures traditions , life styles and human philosophical aspects . E .g . Asia Africa , Europe and U .S . vary in national laws , as each continent has a unique style of religion , linguistic barriers and cultures although few aspects of human rights remain similar viz , right to vote , demand for social and moral justice , practice of religions etc

Unit-B : Human Rights and the UK

The growth of international human rights and humanitarian law

World conference on human rights held in Vienna in 1993 , High Commissioner of Human rights was established as a part of UN secretariat to guide in introducing new procedures , treaties , preparing agenda for human rights with UN and to provide advisory services to various governments . The following are some of the highlighted human right issues in UK foreign...

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