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Paper Topic:

Pros and Cons Human Genome Project

Human Genome Project : Pro and Contra

Human Genome Project (often referred as HGP ) is a long-term program of investigation of human DNA code , launched by US government in 1990 . The project was originally designed to develop for 15 years , however , rapid technological advance allowed to complete it in 2003 . The basic purposes of the project were

1 . to identify all the approximately 20 ,000-25 ,000 genes in human DNA

2 . todetermine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA

3 . to store this information in


4 . to improve tools for data analysis

5 . to transfer related technologies to the private sector

6 . to address the ethical , legal , and social issues that may arise from the project

Just as any scientific project , the HGP included it 's own positive and negative issues . This aims to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of the project and to demonstrate , whether it 's benefits outweight it 's imperfections

The most obvious application of knowledge of human genome is pharmaceutical . Investigation of the DNA would lead to establishing which are currently considered to be incurable , are caused by genetic diss , which can be prevented by revolutionary DNA medicine Moreover , study of the genome creates new opportunities for early diagnostics and making of useful drugs with directional effect . Medicine would become able to deal with separate molecules , meaning , that the fundamental causes of the diseases , but not their symptoms would be cured . Another similar application is understanding why some chemical agents affect humans in this or that way and other do not

The second advantage , which is traditionally pointed , is new knowledge of evolution and origins of life on Earth . The HGP provides information of minimum number of genes for life to emerge and makes it easier to determine what actually life is . The project gives insight to interaction in biological systems , which can be useful to predict environmental change . It also provides a profound understanding of common genetic basis of all living creatures and humans , explaining the evolution of man and showing our place in the natural systems . Moreover comparative investigations detected many similar genes of man and animals , creating grounds for study of human genome by analogy with the animal genome

Genetic investigations are also highly applicable in the forensic science , for example for identification of individuals and using of their genetic material as evidence . Even small pieces of skin , drops of blood , or other material allows to create a DNA pro (or DNA fingerprint , which can be used for identification of both criminals and their victims

Among other advantages one should name the gain in energy technologies agriculture and food production Genome research would contribute to development of new types of fuels (biofuels , as well as reduction of environment pollution . Understanding of plants and animals genetic structure , combined with knowledge of human genome would allow to produce new types of nutritious food with preprogrammed features

As regards the contra arguments , these are mostly ethical ones , combined...

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