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Paper Topic:

Progressivism

RUNNING HEAD : Progressivism

Progressivism Progressivism

By the beginning of the 20th century , reform movements were sweeping the country . Big business men were becoming richer while workers continued to face low wages , long hours and bad working conditions . Dishonesty flourished in the governments of towns , cities and states . Many people opposed these evils . Their efforts to wipe them out by passing new laws resulted in the Progressive Party

The Progressives represented a much broader section of the country than the Populists or the Greenback-Labor Party had . Among them were Democrats , Republicans

, farmers , city workers and small businessmen Several of the earliest supporters of the Progressive Movement as well as the most prominent were Brandeis , Wagner and Smith

Louis Dembitz Brandeis was appointed by President Woodrow Wilson to the U .S . Supreme Court in 1916 . He was an enemy of industrial and financial monopoly . formulated the economic doctrine of the New Freedom that Wilson adopted in his 1912 campaign ' As a Boston lawyer he successfully defended public interests against domineering utility companies , wages and hours laws , railroad rates with the use of social data rather than rhetoric ( Brandeis , Louis Dembitz , 2004 . Robert Ferdinand Wagner served in the New York state assembly , the U .S . Senate and the state justice supreme court . He investigated factory conditions and protected the rights of labor . In the senate , he led the passage of laws on social security and those that guaranteed workers ' rights to bargain collectively . He supported the establishment of the National Recovery Administration , the National Labor Relations Board (Mintz 2007 . Alfred Emanuel Smith held various public positions and was famous for his progressive policies when he was elected mayor of New York in 1918 and proceeded to revamp the state bureaucracy and passed reforms ( Smith , Alfred Emanuel , 2004

Before long , other Progressive mayors were elected in Toledo , Cleveland Detroit , St . Louis , Minneapolis , Milwaukee and New York . Tom L . Johnson was a four-term mayor of Cleveland from 1901 to 1909 . He moved for municipal ownership and opposed monopoly of utilities , reformed the police department and addressed social issues . Another prominent Ohio Progressive was Samuel Jones who became Toledo 's mayor in 1897 . He worked to improve conditions for the working class opened free kindergartens , built parks , instituted an eight-hour day for city workers , and reformed the city government . More mayors in other cities attacked graft , reformed tax policies , established regulatory agencies brought expertise to government , and pursued social service goals including substantial benefits for the working classes . Specifically , to break the control of powerful political bosses , new forms of local government were tried - the city manager plan and the city commission Settlement houses were set up offering social services to the urban poor both for children and adults (Milkis Milieur , 1999

Reforms soon became statewide with Progressives being elected to state legislatures and calling for electoral and labor reforms . The first of these was Hiram Johnson , the Progressive Era Republican and Governor of California from 1911 to 1917 who introduced the ballot initiative into California...

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