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Paper Topic:

Outline the major theories pertaining to the motivation of employees, focusing on the hierarchy of needs, TheoryX/TheoryY, motivation-hygiene theory, and the expectancy and contingency theories.

Outline of Employee Motivation theories

2007 Page : 1

Maslow 's Hierarchy of Needs

Abraham Maslow a humanistic psychologist developed a theory of personality , which is valuable in the field of employee motivation Basically they believe humans strive for upper-level capabilities such as creativity and highest level of consciousness

In his view humans have five needs and if one need is satisfied they go to the next and motivated by unmet needs in stages . In an employee motivational perspective applying this theory managers must identify the unmet needs of employees to

motivate them . The five needs are physiological needs such as food , water shelter , clothing etc . They are the strongest needs because if a person is deprived of all needs the psychological ones comes first in search of satisfaction . When psychological needs are satisfied for a person the needs of safety become active as the psychological needs are satisfied and it no longer affects the thoughts and behavior . When the needs for safety and psychological well being are satisfied a person moves to the next need of love , affection and belongingness

When the first three needs are satisfied then they move to the next level of needs for self-esteem such as firmly based high-level of self respect and respect from others . If these are satisfied a person feels self-confident and valuable . When the previous four needs are satisfied the person moves to the highest need of self-actualization . That is the need to be and do what ever the person is born to do

In Summary Maslow 's Hierarchy of needs in the perspective of employee motivation is to identify the satisfied needs and provide opportunities to meet the unmet needs to motivate the employees . The major weaknesses of the need theory is the non recognition of individual differences and ignoring other factors for example the work itself can motivate employees

Theory X and Theory Y Page : 2

Theory X and Theory Y is about Human nature like the Maslow 's hierarchy of needs

The Theory X assumes humans are in average dislike work and avoid responsibility and must be controlled and threatened to work hard . As well it assumes people as they don 't like responsibility and unambiguous and desires security above all they must be directed

These assumptions are at play behind most organization , which pursues tight control , and punishment or they prefer harmony at work and ignore more higher needs as specified by Maslow 's hierarchy of needs so that the employees behave as Theory X expected . Theory X must be used very carefully in modern organizational environment

as it may be counterproductive and may reduce motivation of employees Contrast to Theory X , Theory Y assumes people use mental and physical effort in work as natural as play . As well it assumes that people will direct themselves if they are committed to the goals of the organization as well under proper conditions average person not only accept responsibility but also seek responsibility . In addition it assumes imagination , creativity...

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