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Paper Topic:

Organized crime & Theories of Deviance

Organized crime Theories of Deviance

Introduction

The objective of this assignment is to expand a hypothetical outline based on theories of deviance and how the differential theory , one of the theories of deviance , applies to organized crime (Ross L . Matsueda 2004

Organized crime

Organized crime is a crime that is carried out methodically by some formal criminal organizations . It has some basic qualities such as diversified interests , durability over time , hierarchical structure reinvestment , access to political protection and use of violence to protect interests (Wikipedia

In the 1920s

, the term `organized crime ' was first used when John Landesco 's `Organized Crime in Chicago ' was published but the idea of prevailing bootlegging gangs was recognized through newss and movies . During that period activities like labor and business racketeering were also called `organized crime (Encyclopedia of American history

The term `organized crime ' has been related to a diversity of criminal activities that is generally ethnically based . Those activities were understood a foreign danger to the United States and to overstate the power of those involved in the activities labeled `organized crime (Wikipedia Theories of Deviance

What is a deviant behavior ? It is a known despoliation of social norms The definition of deviance often varies because of numerous different perspectives and approaches . In defining deviance , the two main schools of thought are Deviance as Objective Reality and Deviance as Subjective Experience . These two schools have several defining traits and related theories about deviance (Rubington , Earl and Martin S . Weinberg , 1987

Deviance as Objective Reality : This approach stresses on the importance of norms and values of any society and consider any deviation from those norms and values as deviant . In this approach , one has to adopt a positivistic attitude of deviance , which is likely to look for actual causes of deviance focusing on the social structural conditions . It also emphasizes upon the investigation of the causes of deviance at the physiological and psychological levels of any individual . This positivistic approach is associated with such theories as Strain Theory Control Theory and Differential Association , also known as Social Theory

Deviance as Subjective Experience : This approach focuses on the interaction between individuals and groups- deviants and non-deviants An Interactionist perspective talks about the views and actions of those who label others as deviant plus the views and actions of those who are labeled as deviant . Sometimes people are labeled as deviant just being different in some way now the reaction of the person involved is how to cope with this imposed label- should they ignore the label or evaluate their actions ? Theories that focus on the interactions of others are Labeling Theory and Conflict Theory . The main criticism of this approach is that the idea of subjectivity provides itself to any activity being deviant or non-deviant , hence allowing individuals to justify any behavior as non-deviant based on the principle that others do not understand

The Differential Association Theory (Social Learning Theory

Social Learning Theory originated from the work of Gabriel Tarde (1912 :322 , which recommended that...

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