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Paper Topic:

Non-Auditory Effects of Noise

NON-AUDITORY EFFECTS OF NOISE

Noise simply refers to the undesirable exposure to uncoordinated unrefined sound of frequency higher than what the human ear is capable of adapting , to make out sensible interpretation through relay to the brain through the auditory pathway . The effects of noise can be described as chronic or acute . The chronic effects develop over time on continual exposure to noise . This is sometimes noticed in people living close to airports . Their auditory system gradually becomes insensitive and they have a hard time discerning subtle differences between sound levels

. In terms of debilitating effects , noise can be biologically classified into auditory and non-auditory noise . The effects of noise have been categorised into the auditory effects and the non-auditory effects . The auditory effects are traditionally seen as the effects of exposure to loud noise . Over the years however , researchers have pointed to other effects that exposure to loud noise might result into , they constitute the non-auditory effects of noise

Q .1 . what is the distinction between auditory and non-auditory effects of noise (15 of marks

Auditory effects of noise include all pathologies that directly arise as a result of acute or chronic exposure to high levels of noise i .e . a high pitch of sound that is haphazard . These pathologies involve the auditory system or the pathway along which the sound waves pass from the ear to the brain . It basically involves hearing loss or abnormal ear response to low or high pitch of regular sound of normal intensity

Non-auditory effects of noise , on the other hand , involve all other pathologies or morbidities that arise as a result of exposure to a high level of noise with no connection with the anatomical arrangement of the neither auditory systems nor pathway . Such thus has noticeable or significant effects in the other part of the body . They include cardiovascular effects , psychosis e .t .c

Q .2 . Briefly , describe six non-auditory effects of noise (30 of marks

Cardiovascular effects : This is an important non-auditory effect of noise that leads to reduced adaptation of the ear to increasing sound levels . Reports have shown that high blood pressure results from progressive increase from early childhood to adulthood on constant exposure to noise . Headache is another resultant sign from vasodilatations of the intracranial vessels . The intracranial vessels dilate because of the increase in the level of blood Adrenalin , released by the adrenal medulla . Adrenalin is an endogenous substance released as part of the `fight or flight ' mechanism of an individual . Anxiety can also precipitate the release of these

hormones . They are part of The Sympathetic division of the Autonomic Nervous System

Also , in patients with cardiovascular diseases , heart attacks could arise from hearing a loud noise . This could lead to an urgent medical condition in which a defibrillator has to be used to resuscitate the individual

Annoyance : Emotional discomfort results from noise exposure . A patient from a quieter environment has an unusual attitude to sudden or bizarre environment where noise persists . The annoyance is significant...

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