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Paper Topic:

Multiple Questions

bold the correct answer

Which of the following statements concerning Earth 's magnetic field is true

At high latitudes , the force lines intersect Earth 's surface at steep angles

Magnetic poles are not fixed and move freely across the Earth

Generated by magnetic , crystalline , iron grains in the outer core

Dipolar with the two poles centered near the equator

Which of the following best characterizes how the diameter of Earth 's core and the nature of the outer core were discovered

Crystalline iron was found in lavas erupted from the

deepest known hot spots

By analysis of the P-wave and S-wave shadow zones

Because P-wave speeds are higher in the outer core than in the lower mantle

By using the ratio of iron meteorites to stony meteorites to deduce the relative diameters of the core and mantle

Which of the following best characterizes the asthenosphere

Layer of soft , solid , magnesium silicates and molten iron droplets at the base of the mantle

A zone of hardened , silicate rock at the base of the oceanic crust

A zone of softened peridotite in the upper mantle

The zone in the mantle from which hot-spot magmas are melted

Continental crust is generally thicker than oceanic crust

T

F

High rock temperature enhance plastic deformation and flow in the asthenosphere and inhibit brittle fracturing

T

F

Which of the following would most likely be covered with thick turbidite layers

Axial rift zone of an active mid-ocean spreading center

Upper part of a steep , narrow , submarine canyon

Deep-sea fan at the base of a continental slope

Ocean floor around a conical-shaped seamount

Oceanic ridges are elevated compared to the surrounding ocean floor because

Newly formed lithosphere is hotter and therefore less dense than the surrounding rocks

The older , colder lithosphere is less dense and tends to rise

The mantle is pushing up the lithosphere along the ridge

Of the shield volcanoes that develop due to seafloor spreading

Where in the ocean are biological communities thriving without sunlight

In shallow water , coral reefs

In muds of deep-ocean trenches

Around seafloor , hot spring vents

Around fissure vents for flood basalts

The idea that rifting and dispersal of one large landmass is followed by a long period during which the fragments are gradually reassembled into a new single landmass is called

Plate tectonics

Plate assemblage

Uniformitarianism

The supercontinent cycle

Ocean 's cover approximately what percent of the Earth 's surface

10

90

50

70

The Valley and Ridge Province of the Appalachian Mountains is characterized by

Sedimentary strata folded in late Paleozoic time

Deeply eroded , late Paleozoic , fault-block mountains and valleys

Stratovolcanoes above a volcanic arc

Crustal stretching as Africa and Eurasia migrated away from North America

An exotic terrane created by a seamount accreted to a continental margin would be composed

Of folded , quartz sandstone and shallow water , marine limestone

Exclusively of granite batholits and rhyolite welded tuffs

Mainly of organic-rich , black shales and beach-type sandstones

Mainly of basaltic lava flows and minor , coralline limestone

Which of the following is an example of an isostatic movement

Stream downcutting following a drop in sea level

Arching of strata at the center of a dome

Numerous aftershocks associated with deep-focus earthquakes

Uplift of areas recently covered by thick , continental ice sheets

Volcanism along a continental arc is dominated by the eruption of

Basaltic lave flows

Andesitic lavas and pyroclastic materials

Rhyolitic pyroclastic materials and lavas

All of the above

An ophiolite-complex terrane would contain abundant , rhyolitic , volcanic rocks and sandstone

T

F

Which one of the following materials has the maximum , sustainable , slope angle , as determined by the angle of repose

Dry silt

Moist , sandy soil with a clay-rich matrix

Dry sand

Moist , clay-rich shale layers

A geologist wants to locate a horizontal coal bed on a soil-covered slope where soil creep is active . A distinctive sandstone bed underlies the coal bed . On the basis of weathered sandstone fragments in the soil , where is the coal bed

Just below the lowest piece of sandstone seen in the soil

Just above the highest piece of sandstone seen in the soil

Just above the highest piece of sandstone seen in the soil

Just above the lowest piece of sandstone seen in the soil

Which mass wasting process has the slowest rate of movement

Slump

Rock avalanche

Solifluction

Creep

As an erosional process , how is mass wasting unique from wind , water and ice

Mass wasting affects particles of all sizes whereas the others affect only smaller particles

Mass wasting does not require transporting medium

Mass wasting affects much larger geographic areas than does wind , water and ice

All of the above make mass wasting unique compared to wind , water , and ice

How do freezing , thawing , wetting , and drying contribute to soil creep

The soil becomes much weaker when dry and frozen

Gravity exerts a much stronger force when the soil is wet and thawed

The soil expands and contracts , lifting particles and dropping them a slight distance downslope

Eventually , these cause the soil and regolith to suddenly slide down the slope

Which of the following is not part of the hydrologic cycle

Water evaporating from a lake

Water infiltrating into the soil and bedrock

Calcium carbonate dissolving in soil water and groundwater

Water moving into creeks and streams following a rainstorm

How does urbanization (paving , etc ) affect runoff and infiltration in a small , previously forested , drainage basin

Both decrease

Runoff decreases infiltration increases

Both increase

Infiltration decreases runoff increases

In the absence of cutoff , how does a river meander loop behave over time

The gradient is raised as the loop lengthens , and the channel migrates toward the cut or inner bank of the loop

The gradient is raised as the loop shortens , and the channel migrates away from the cut or outer bank of the loop

The gradient is lowered as the channel lengthens and migrates toward the cut or outer bank of the loop

The gradient is lowered as the loop shortens , and the channel migrates toward the cut or inner bank of the loop

What is the drop in water surface elevation divided by the distance the water flows

Stream discharge

Hydraulic capacity

Hydrologic resistance

Stream gradient

Which of the following features characterize wide streams and valleys

Natural levees broad floodplains

Rapids , channel bed postholes

Waterfalls entrenched meanders

V-shaped valley cross-sections

Which common , rock-forming mineral or mineral group is most readily dissolved by groundwater

Calcite

Quartz

Feldspars

Clay minerals

Which of the following is not a general characteristic of groundwater

Constant temperature year round

Rarely contains dissolved constituents

Rarely contains suspended sediment

Supply is independent of short droughts

Which of the following can logically be concluded by speleothems /dripstone hanging from a cave roof

The cave roof was below water when the speleothems formed

The cave floor was above the water level and the roof was below the water table when the speleothems formed

The cave roof was above the water table when the speleothems formed

The cave roof was below the water table sometime after the speleothems had formed

For unconfined aquifers , what hydrologic factor is approximated by the slope of the water table

Porosity head

Hydro competency

Affluent decline

Hydraulic gradient

Which of the following concerning artesian wells is not true

The well penetrates the aquifer overlain by an aquitard

The well penetrates an aquifer underlain by an impermeable bed

The aquifer is generally inclined , and it is saturated to an elevation above the point where the well penetrates the aquifer

When the well penetrates the aquifer , the water rises to the bottom of the aquitard above the aquifer

Where is the world 's largest ice sheet located today

Greenland

Russia , Siberia

Iceland

Antarctica Abrasion and plucking generally involve what part of a glacier

The internal , flowage zone

The snout zone

The surface , brittle zone

The basal , sliding zone

All of the following s apply to stratified drift (not glacial till ) except for

Deposited directly from melting ice

Sand and gravel beds

Deposits are often layered and well-sorted

Deposited by glacial meltwater streams

Which process occurs where a glacier enters the sea

Kaming

Calving

Surging

Drowning

Which of the following best describes the term glacial drift

Floating of icebergs southward from the north polar seas

Slow , plastic flow movement in the brittle zone of a glacier

The sedimentary materials outwash and till

The slow , southward advance of the continental ice sheets over Canada and North America during the Pleistocene

Which of the following statements concerning rock weathering is true

Warm temperatures and high soil moisture contents accelerate chemical weathering

Low temperatures and high soil moisture contents accelerate chemical weathering but inhibit mechanical weathering

Warm temperatures and low soil moisture contents both promote rapid rates of mechanical weathering

Temperature has no effect on rock weathering

How is desert pavement formed

Deflation and sheet wash remove fine-sized materials leaving coarse weathered , rock fragments concentrated at the surface

Blowing wind removes fine-size soil particles coarser particles abrades to sand size

Running water deposits gravel and sand over the finer-sized soil particles

Intense chemical weathering removes the sand - and silt - sized particles , leaving coarse rock debris covering the land surface

What mature , desert landscape feature consists of coalesced alluvial fans

Balda

Bajada

Bahia

Baja

Which one of the following is a low-latitude desert characterized by high atmospheric pressures and descending air masses (not rain shadow deserts

Sahara Desert northern Africa

Atacama Desert in Chile , South America

Gobi Desert , China and Mongolia

Desert valleys of the Great Basin , US

Rainshadow deserts are common in

Vast ,dry steppe lands like the Great Plains

North Central Africa

The dry valleys of eastern California and Nevada

Europe north of the Alps

Fetch refers to

A large expanse of open water over which the wind blows and generates waves

Ocean currents moving parallel to the beach

The rotational movements of water particles beneath a passing , surface wave

The beachfront area where rapid erosion is taking place

Which one of the following coastline would typically have wave-cut cliffs , sea stacks , sea arches , and wave-cut platforms

One where the bedrock is vigorously eroded as sea level rises

One where a bedrock , wave-cut cliff is rapidly retreating inland as sea level falls

One where unconsolidated sediments are being eroded as sea level falls

One where unconsolidated sediments are being rapidly eroded as sea level rises

Which one of the following statements concerning the Mississippi delta lands is not true

Coastal erosion and loss of delta lands will continue as sea level continues to rise

Artificial levees help spread river-borne sediment uniformly over the delta swamps and wetlands

The sediment supply has dropped since large reservoirs were constructed on the Missouri and Arkansas Rivers

The thick sediment pile is slowly compacting and the delta is slowly subsiding

Incoming waves slow down and rotate towards an orientation of being parallel to the shoreline . This process is known as

Reflection

Relaxing

Refluxing

Refraction

Af and Am climates form a discontinuous belt astride the

Tropic of Capricorn

Equator

Tropic of cancer

Artic Circle

Prime Meridian

The leeward sides of mountains are typically dry and are often arid enough to be referred to as

Rain shadow deserts

Steppes

A Mediterranean climate

Taigas

Tundras

Which one of the following is NOT a trace gas contributing to a future global increase in temperature

Nitrous oxide

Methane

Water vapor

Chlorofluorocarbons

Which one of the following is Not a component of the climate system

Biosphere

Solid earth

Exosphere

Cryosphere

Hydrosphere

Within the A group of climates the two main types are wet tropical climates and tropical

Rainforest

Wet and dry

Highlands

Lowlands

Deltas

In a climatological sense , dryness is a function of both annual rainfall and

Altitude

Solar radiation

Wind direction

Slope

Evaporation

Which of the following is not part of Earth 's original atmosphere

Water vapor

Carbon dioxide

Nitrogen

Oxygen

Both A and C

Which of the following represents the greatest expanse of geological time

Mesozoic

Cenozoic

Precambrian

Paleozoic

the major source of free oxygen in the atmosphere is from

molten rock

water

green plants

silicate minerals

glaciers

Earth 's primitive atmosphere evolved from gases

Produces by radioactive decay

Collected from the nebula

Escaping from water

From the sun

Expelled from within

The cells of these primitive organisms lack organized nuclei and they reproduce asexually

Trilobites

Eukaryotes

Prokaryotes

Brachiopods

of the above

Bauxite is an ore of

Iron

Tin

Gold

Aluminum

Coal and petroleum are considered to be fossil fuels because

Their energy content was derived from ancient sunlight

Carbon dioxide , released when they burn , contributes to the green house effect

Their oxygen and nitrogen content were derived from the ancient atmosphere

Coal beds and petroleum reservoir rocks contain abundant fossils

Sandstone is a much more common reservoir rock for petroleum than shale because

Shale is more porous so the oil tends to leak out over time

Sandstones are more permeable than shales so subsurface flows of fluids tend to be directed through sandstone strata rather than through shales

Sandstone is more abundant than shale

Shales especially black shales , are much richer in primary organic matter that are sandstones

Graphite deposits typically form geologically

As deposits around submarine , hot spring vents

By decomposition of humus and soil gases during intense , tropical weathering

As hydrothermal vein deposits in limestone around a granitic batholith

By regional metamorphism of organic-rich , black shales

Which one of the following best describes how talc deposits might originate geologically

Reaction of olivine and pyroxene with hydrothermal fluids during regional metamorphism

Reaction of hydrothermal fluids with quartz-rich sandstones during contact metamorphism

Dehydration of gypsum and limestone during contact metamorphism

High pressure metamorphism associated with impact of an asteroid or large meteorite ...

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