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Paper Topic:

Margaret Mead`s `Warfare: An Invention - Not a Biological Necessity`

Is Warfare in Nature of Man ? Response to the Margaret Meade`s `Warfare An Invention - Not a Biological Necessity

War has always been a companion of man and a part of human existence . In the human history only few years have been absolutely peaceful when all peoples of the globe lived in friendship or at least without conflicts Already the fist weapons , invented by man , could be used as weapons of war . So war can be called an attribute of humans same as mind , or ability to walk on two legs . A question whether

war is caused by inborn or social determinants is , perhaps , as old as history . Once more it has been addressed by Margaret Meade in her Warfare : An Invention - Not a Biological Necessity . She argues , that primitive indigenous societies have no idea of warfare and puts in the Eskimos as example . So she believes , that war is a matter of social existence and humans have invented war in the course history just as they invented a wheel . Under Meade , humans have no inborn tendency to war and there are no objective factors for a war to arise . War as she puts it , is a method invented to resolve conflicts , equal to other conflicts resolution methods such as courts and negotiations

This is to contest such position and prove , that war is in fact in the nature of man and it is inevitable for man , so it is impossible to speak of war as of invention . It will review some of Meade 's arguments and evaluate them using academic s , that disagree with Mead 's position . The final thesis of the is that WAR IN HUMAN SOCIETIES IS PRECONDITIONED BY BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL DETERMINANTS . War her can not be compared to other methods of conflict resolution , because it is not , or at least not only a method to resolve conflicts . War is a phenomena which exists as itself and does not result from necessity to cope with certain misunderstanding . References to some fragments of Mead 's shall be used in forming arguments against her theory

First and foremost it is necessary to determine the subject and find out what is war . Meade offers the following definition : organized conflict between two groups as groups , in which each group puts an army (even if the army is only fifteen Pygmies ) in the field to fight and kill , if possible , some of the members of the army of the other group

The key word here is conflict . War is usually defined as an organized form of conflicts between groups . Usually such groups are represented by societies or communities , most often by peoples and nations . In his brilliant War Before Civilization ' professor Lawrence H . Keeley has calculated that 90-95 of peoples communities were once engaged to war in this or that way and many of them fought constantly Whether war has been invented or not , those numbers suggest , that war is more usual than peace for humans . And all those...

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