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Paper Topic:

Management principles

Management Principles

2005

Introduction

In the industrial era , organizations have created untenable problems for moral experts by becoming bothersome illustrations of the dynamic social processes that defy attempts to apply traditional moral theory and detached philosophical wisdom . Kaufman (1973 ) observed that bureaucratic managers often privately approve of behavior that they acknowledge publicly as illegal or unethical . Expectations for loyalty to the organization and for obedience to managerial direction set the a priori guidelines for moral conduct , and a given organization can develop and impose its own form of influence

on the individual with an organizationally specific moral that can seem to pre-empt external social . Organization members can defy common social or religious morality when they are acting on behalf of the organization and feel justified in doing so because their behavior is judged within the context of the organization (Jackall , 1988 . Yet , employees rarely exhibit unacceptable behavior in society that is acceptable inside the organization 's boundaries . Society holds the organization accountable as a rational actor , but rarely are the individuals actually responsible for creating organizational outcomes entailed in that accountability

Modern understanding of ethics emphasizes the behavioral aspects to the extent that the words ethics and morals are commonly used interchangeably by philosophers to refer to behavioral standards , codes of conduct or principles upon which these standards and codes are based But , the different words imply different things . According to Bauman ethics is something more than a mere of what people do more even than a of what they believe they ought to be doing in to be decent , just , good - or , more generally , `in the right (1994 : 1

All organization members make decisions , the collective manifestations of which fall into certain patterns that result in more or less consistent outcomes . The exploration of these patterns can be conducted using political frameworks . Deetz has asserted that organizations make most decisions regarding the use of resources , the development of technologies , the products available , and the working relations among people (1992 : 3 . While it can be argued that a substantial portion of industrial technology is developed at the behest of the military , it is clear that organizations have taken on many roles heretofore expected of government . Deetz further suggested that the state 's power is restricted to crude guidance through taxation and regulation

Discussion of Situational Factors

Ethics are sources of identity and motivation for mature individuals representing some sense of prevailing telos . A person develops an ethic by learning cultural convention and then modifies what has been learned according to insight and personal experience . The point is often taken for granted a good deal of that which influences the development of an ethic is not likely to be grasped consciously by the individual . Ethics establish states of existence for individuals that make them , for example , more or less predisposed to accept or reject authority and supervision of their activities . Ethics induce people to seek out the association of others who share similar ethics

Organizations , to...

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