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Paper Topic:

Introduction to Statistics and SPSS

Aggression as a psychological construct has been linked to the discussion of emotion . Psychologists have often emphasized that aggression is an overt manifestation of anger and or the perception that one 's personal well being is threatened . However , aggression grew into a separate field of study as research have pointed out that aggression can occur even without the presence of an external threat or the emotional state that the individual is in . The most famous research on aggression is the study of the effect of television violence to children it showed that

children imitate aggressive behavior as a behavioral pattern devoid of any logical explanation (Anderson Bushman , 2001 . Aggression was also evident in controlled studies of chimpanzees and other animals thereby indicating that aggression may have a biological explanation

The biological perspective says that aggression is similar to hunger , in the sense that it is a basic drive . Aggression had been found to be lined to certain parts of the brain in animal studies hence human aggression may also be controlled by the brain . A release of certain hormones and the cortical response to the surge in hormones may bring about aggressive behavior . On the other hand , the biological perspective also offers an alternative explanation when the early studies on television violence and aggressive behavior failed to show similar results for female children . The biological basis of aggression can be traced to the presence and level of testosterone in the body . Males predominantly have higher testosterone levels than females hence males are more prone to exhibit aggressive behavior . This views stresses that the higher the amount of testosterone in the body , the higher the tendency for aggression , and studies along this lines have found that males with high testosterones have higher power and social status due to their aggressiveness in pursuing their desires . For the biological point of view

aggression may take many forms , like the desire for power and authority Aggression may not be the display of brute force and or violent behavior but as an inherent drive to subdue others and or to command the respect and fear of lesser individuals (Caplan Larkin , 1991 . On studies of aggressive behavior in convicted criminals , it was found that those who have committed heinous crimes were males with an extra Y chromosome also referred to as super male syndromes , the extra Y chromosome have been linked to more violent and aggressive behavior (Alper , 1998 , debate on whether criminal tendencies or aggression is sex linked and genetically based has been going on for years and although research had yielded conflicting results , it has remained a popular view among students and practitioners of criminal pros

An alternative but related perspective on aggression had been espoused by evolution theory . From the argument of social-learning perspective that aggression is a learned response to specific situations and behaviors was taken further by evolutionary psychology . They contend that aggression is a behavior that we have inherited from our ancestors as a behavioral response for the preservation of...

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