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Paper Topic:

What is Intelligence


What is Intelligence


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What is Intelligence

No controversy in psychology has been more heated than the question of whether there exists in each person a general intellectual capacity that can be measured and quantified as a number . But most people have implicit views about what constitutes intelligence . One could be described as being really smart ' and another as a hard worker but not very bright ' Thus , most people endorse the notion that there are individual differences in intelligence , and

that there is a continuum of intellectual abilities along which people can be roughly ed Defining intelligence precisely is exceedingly difficult . Hence this research explores the nature of intelligence first before discussing meaningfully the different types of measurements of intelligence

The Nature of Intelligence

Experts in the field of intellectual assessment have historically disagreed about the nature of intelligence . In the 1920s , for example several experts were asked to define intelligence , and they provided a wide range of definitions 65 years later , another group of experts was asked the same question , with a similar variety of responses (Sternberg Dettermen , 2006 Sternberg Powell , 2002

In 1923 , psychologist E .G . Boring defined intelligence as what the tests test ' thus providing an operational definition that circumvented some of the frustration over definitions . Boring 's definition has been influential for a number of years , although it illustrates the lack of consensus among experts whose work has touched so many aspects of people 's lives

Most psychology dictionary and books define intelligence as the capacity to acquire and use knowledge , a capacity that is supported by a host of cognitive activities such as perception , memory storage and retrieval , reasoning , problem solving , and creativity . In this definition , intelligence is not the individual 's storehouse of knowledge itself , but rather the capacity to acquire and use it

As a capacity , or a potential , intelligence cannot be measured directly , because in a sense it is an abstraction , a capacity that results from information processing : acquiring , storing in memory retrieving , combining , comparing , and using information in new contexts (Humphreys , 1999 . Intelligence can be measured indirectly , because the best indicators of the capacity to acquire and use knowledge are the knowledge that an individual has already acquired , measured on a comparative basis . But one should keep in mind that the knowledge that an individual has already acquired is affected by many factors including opportunities provided in home and school environments motivation , and even physical health . Hence the measurement of pure intellectual capacity is virtually impossible

Intelligence and Tests

Most people have faced dozens of different tests of mental abilities elementary school tests of basic reading and math skills , course examinations , intelligence tests , driver 's license examinations , and college entrance examinations , are just a few examples . Psychologists classify such tests as either aptitude tests , intended to predict your ability to learn a new skill , or Achievement tests , intended to reflect what you have learned

The actual difference between aptitude tests and achievement tests...

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