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Paper Topic:

Health systems management

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SUBJECT : Impact Evaluation Methods

The purpose of the memo is to identify the methods and materials required to carry out the choice of necessary designs for impact evaluation when accessing health programs . Evaluation should be designed from a research perspective . If a too scientific design is settled for , then the more costly the whole process becomes . The other point of importance is if the data collection is retrospective or prospective in design

A good design contains impact variables measured before and after

br intervention , a comparison group of non recipients and the threats to both internal and external validity are at the minimum . Previous health accessing programs involved either Intervention studies which were manipulated by health practitioners and given to individuals or groups or Observation studies which were not manipulated but observed However , a program evaluation can incorporate both studies

Design Options

The decision tree can be used if there is an available comparison group (Kalishman 19 . It provides designs for impact documentation and three groups are involved here that is the pre-test group , the post-test group and the comparison groups . In the post-test group data is collected from participants after the program , it is cheap and recommended for small groups . It can be used when its the only option as a result of prior progress or inaccessibility to members of the target group . It is very likely to be affected by historical and maturation threats . Both the pre-test and post-tests are evaluated through collection of data from the participants and non- participants

Impact assessment designs show any changes after the program is undertaken or if the intervention is program based . It involves Time series group which is time conscious and some times data may not be available and Multiple groups time series where data is collected from two groups before and after the program . Here , two constructions are involved , the retrospective construction where people with the desired outcome are put together with a control group and the research determines who was put through the program and who was not . Only a few subjects are required . Then there is the prospective construction where its had to predict who will and who wont get the program

The Patched Up Cycle exploits contextual features to refine the research as it progresses

Designs for Impact Evaluation Research

These are expensive but effective . They can either determine who gets the program and who does not . They are important in eliminating biases from unlike groups . All participants have equal but random chances

Sampling

Whereby a choice of who will and who will not be evaluated is made The constraints is knowing the participants and the size of the population

A sampling construction is conducted where it can either be probable or non-probable . The former gives an equal chance whereas the latter allows comparison , Its cheap and simple . It is important to determine the sample size and the predictable effects of the program . The major constraint at this stage is lack of...

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