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Paper Topic:

Hazards to prenatal development in teen pregnancy

Introduction

The environmental hazard is a generic term for any situation or state of events , which poses a threat to the surrounding environment These environmental hazards can be biological which means a large algal bloom it makes the lake uninhabitable for other organisms . There are the chemical , physical , mechanical and psychological hazards . The fetal life and early infancy are the periods of remarkable susceptibility to environmental hazards . Toxic exposures to chemical pollutants during these windows of increased susceptibility can cause disease and disability in infants , children and across the entire span

of human life . Some of these effects of toxic exposures recognized have been the congenital malformations and other adverse pregnancy outcomes . The notion of developmental plasticity of organ functions and disease risks has gained much support from both experimental and epidemiological studies . The timing of exposure with an emphasis on critical windows of susceptibility has therefore become a crucial factor to be considered in toxicological assessments

During May 20-24 , 2007 , researchers in the fields of environmental health , environmental chemistry , developmental biology toxicology , epidemiological , nutrition , and pediatrics gathered at the international conference on fetal programming and development toxicity Their main goal was to highlight new insights into the effects of prenatal and early postnatal exposure to toxicants and their sustained effects on individuals throughout their life span . The developing fetus is extraordinarily susceptible to perturbation of the intrauterine environment . If a disparity arises between prenatal and postnatal environments , it can cause abnormalities in energy metabolism , endocrine functions , and organ development

The physiological mechanisms involved in the development of energy and nutrient metabolism are highly vulnerable to toxic effects of environmental chemicals . The chemical exposures during prenatal and early postnatal life can bring about important effects on gene expression , which determines normal development and also predisposes to disease risks during adolescence and adult life . New research on rodent models shows that developmental exposure to toxic chemicals such as the hormonally active substances does not involve changes in DNA sequences but may be heritable . Prenatal exposure to an estrogenic drug no longer used on pregnant women , causes an increased risks of vaginal , uterine and breast cancer

Functioning of the human reproductive system is highly vulnerable to changes in the intrauterine hormonal environment . The brain is particularly sensitive to toxic exposures during development , which involves a complex series of steps that must be completed in the right time . Slight decrements in the brain function and economic activities even in the absence of mental retardation or obvious disease . Each neurotoxin contaminant may perhaps cause only a negligible effect but a combination of several toxic chemicals , along with other adverse factors such as maternal stress or decreased thyroid function may trigger substantial decrements in brain function and may predispose to the development of serious degenerative disease

The immune system also undergoes important development both before and after birth . New evidence suggests that exposure to some immunotoxic chemicals , such as maternal stress may cause aberrant reactions of the immune system to foreign proteins including vaccines . Such...

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