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The Great Influenza by John Barry

The Great Influenza by John Barry

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The Great Influenza by John Barry

The Great Influenza by John Barry

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Introduction

It was the first great collision between a natural force and modern science that included individuals who refused either to submit to that force or to simply call upon divine intervention to save themselves from it , individuals who instead were determined to confront this force directly , with a developing technology and with their minds ' said John Barry in his prologue in the book The Great Influenza p

Barry recalls the unforgettable period from history in his well-thought collection of actions , correspondences , pieces of writing , and stories from the past and the present . The author described the beginning and the sequence of the epidemic and how this affected the society and the culture that bridged the way to the discovery of the contributing force

A small number of people remained living to reminiscence the horror of 24 weeks in 1918-1919 , while a predominantly antagonistic damage of influenza A virus killed a large number of people worldwide

In 1918 , the influenza epidemic outbreak is like any other catastrophe that struck the country in the past . More than 100 million fatalities out of 1 .8 billion people around the world have been eradicated by this plague since the past centuries . The harsh reality in the 1918 pandemic continued to challenge the human race and raised the public 's concern in safeguarding their health and well being . The society continued to face the face up to the rampant threats that may sooner or later put the human race into extinction

Out of a United States inhabitants of no more than 105 million , roughly 675 ,000 people passed away . In his newly published story of the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 , author John Barry puts forward the concept of two hostilities being conducted in 1918 , namely , the Great War amid nations and the battle among the scientists and the virus

The Great Influenza by John Barry

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John Barry 's argument that the influenza epidemic of 1918 was not about the contemporary medicine and science since practitioners in the medical field understood how influenza can be cured and how it can be fatal when it attacked the populace . Before medicine could confront this disease with any promise of effect , it had to become scientific . It had to be revolutionized (p .6 ' The medical breakthroughs provided sufficient information and a series of guidelines regarding the flu attack without any distinction from the medical science centuries ago . Barry explained in his book the happenings in the public and private institutions during the 1918 pandemic

First , the lack of solid and accurate reporting by the media regarding the extent of the influenza virus was the main contributor to the supposed public danger and health hazard since lack of preparations and correct information at that time . Media reported a mix of information - half truth and half lies . The danger of the influenza virus rose , with a threat to be a plague . The fear and uncertainty resulted from the ill contributions of the supposedly reputable and credible sources such as the newss

Mr . Barry 's explanation of the Great Influenza is methodical and thoroughly researched , and his admonitions are sensible and applicable His propositions are backed up by facts and figures . He also recognizes and illustrates alternative conjectures , such as those concerning the starting point of the 1918 strain . Those readers with a fondness and inclination for history and biology mixed with a moment of anticipation will completely take pleasure in and benefit from the book

The first few chapters regarding the early 20th-century science are pretty long and there are times when the account is difficult to follow since it hurdles back and forth from the military warfare and the numerous scientific undertakings

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However , the outbreak 's development was as complicated as Barry explains the details on the subject of scientific and military situation . Some of the facts are very useful in comprehension of the succession of events that directed to catastrophic results . His messages of anticipation to a brighter future and vigilance , at the same time should be made aware by the scientific , government , and public health organizations

The Challenges and Explanations Posed by Barry

Barry illustrated how the struggles are connected . His of actions is gathered as a warning to today 's community wellbeing practitioners and the institutes of government , positively , in requisites of rising to encounter a communicable dis challenge of extraordinary magnitude , but also in requisites of highlighting the responsibilities of our communal health control in teaching and message transmission

Barry starts the narrative by recounting the transformations and revolutionary healing in medicine in the United States from the dawn of the 20th century . Miasma theory of disease was more prevalent than the germ concept in medical studies . Treatments and medications for sickness often sourced larger casualties and mortality than the disease itself In reality , developments at European health associations were rapidly wiping out American knowledge . Movement to revolutionize the science in the United States commenced with the confidence left by Johns Hopkins in 1873 for the rationale of beginning a new institution of higher education and infirmary . Johns Hopkins would be employed with the most excellent people who received formal training , such as William Henry Welch , William Osler , and William Halsted . Barry believes that the fundamental consequence of the rise of Johns Hopkins , was to stimulate the medical sciences in the United States to innovative heights with the avant-garde preparation and teaching of its undergraduates and apprentices by establishing The Great Influenza by John Barry

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scientific contests which caused the beginning of the Rockefeller Institute and most important improvements and innovations in other medical institutions . Illnesses like tetanus , yellow fever , diphtheria meningitis , and cholera were being restricted and controlled , if not alleviated and barred in general . This was a stimulating moment of breakthrough in the United States and hopefulness in a better medical science rose to newfound heights

As the scientific breakthrough in the United States escalated , the danger of the World War I emerged and exploded in America . John Barry touched upon the subject of war as an important catalyst for the influenza virus . First , the war helped in the facilitation of the widespread of the virus in 1918 . In Haskell County , Kansas , the provincial general practitioner distinguished an unusual outbreak of a deadly influenza virus that come into contact with healthy people as its victims . Public administrators were notified with the epidemic in Kansas , though the significance of the number of population did not alert the administrators since people in Haskell County is sparse . At the same time , quite a lot of soldiers are on their vacation leave in Kansas from their training facility in Camp Funston

Throughout the wintry weather of 1918 , territorial army were being jam-packed into base for warmth . Defense force health administrators were not aware of the community health threats of congestion and inadequate ventilation . The high incident degree of this specific influenza damage , united with the deprived surroundings at their base would have effortlessly made possible the increase of influenza from just one or two soldiers . Even though the factual resource of the strain stays behind a of argument , those who have the same opinion with the theory that influenza was proliferated by stopover of the soldiers will be satisfied with Barry 's argument . The author persuasively explains the progress and transfer of influenza , which can be hunted down from the county of Kansas to Camp Funston , to other service camps as the interchange of troops preceded to France and the other parts of The Great Influenza by John Barry

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Europe . While Barry draws round other presumptions of the origin of the influenza virus in Kansas , as well as in China , India , and a bronchitis outbreak in Britain during the 1916 , it may have been said that the war influenced the transfer of the virus that resulted in an epidemic

The second effect of the war that Barry highlighted was when President Woodrow Wilson would stop in informing the public regarding the vital information of the influenza outbreak . As the virus extended from military camps to civilians , even as America 's principal cities knocked down paralyzed by fear and fatality , President Wilson remained insensitive from his need to maintain and support his war campaigns enduring to move recently educated soldiers to the fronts and enlisting and training adolescent men . The newss were censored , as were free communication and not American activities . The government 's requirement to safeguard self-esteem , to uphold support and financial support for the fighting , depended on remaining the public uninformed of the outbreak 's bearing contained inside the military . Suppression of freedom of speech was so all-encompassing that even local newss played down the reports of morbidity and mortality . The full possibility of this influenza occurrence was not fully documented until it struck Camp Devens , near Boston , where soldiers , nurses , and doctors became unwell were cyanotic hours afterward , and started passing away at rates of 100 per day . By this point in time , in spite of forceful and unstoppable hard work of America 's finest scientific and medical brains , the epidemic would be inexorable . Barry articulates the spread to Boston , to Chicago , and to Philadelphia , where nearly 800 inhabitants died on one day alone and blackened corpses piled up in the side road . Terror and horror was to be expected and unavoidable due to the circumstances that struck America instantly . Equipped with the missiles and bullets of new scientific breakthrough , bacteriologists , virologists , epidemiologists and clinicians made use of the scientific The Great Influenza by John Barry

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approach to the paramount of their capabilities . They cut off bacteria connected with influenza and developed a vaccine against pneumococcus The true cause of influenza continued to be mysterious for years . The same faction of initial investigators namely , Oswald Avery , Simon Flexner , Karl Landsteiner , Milton Rosenau , George Whipple , William Park , Thomas Rivers , Paul Lewis , and others , had discovered a great deal concerning the contagion , but became unsuccessful to discover its pathogen

In 1931 , Richard Shope , an apprentice of Lewis , circulated outcomes from the investigation for a causal study of the agent in swine influenza . It was certainly a virus . Building on his work in 1933 British scholars secluded the virus accountable for human being influenza . The gesture of development that had stretched the United States in the early hours 1900 's subsequent to the beginning of the Johns Hopkins had fell short to restore to health or put a stop to the flu deadly disease . The Great War against influenza was won though the real warfare of the militia lost . Barry ends his narrative of the outbreak on a concluding note of concern , in which the devastation in 1918-1919 was due to community fear and lack of knowledge to the extent that the changeable natural world of the virus and the wartime surroundings . The management of public health administrators lies not merely in the supervision of health and disease , but in managing society 's awareness and knowledge of health and disease . This was the supreme challenge posed in this era

Barry 's examination and investigation of the happenings in 1918-1919 also revealed that an upbringing of sightless nationalism permitted tactician to aggravate the deadly disease by obstinately proceeding with a course of action on war enlistment that overlooked not only the recommendations of public health representatives but also the gruesome reality on the ground . Notwithstanding a painstaking scientific methodology to medicine that came forward from the 1918 virulent disease , devoid of information distribution amid the medical The Great Influenza by John Barry

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institution and public-policy judgment makers and a wide-ranging and unswerving public risk communication attempt , the later influenza pandemic could be just as catastrophic and devastating . In reality weighing up the insinuations of Barry 's line of reasoning in terms of justifying a future deadly disease is a depressing proposition , as the characteristics of the disease itself is such that neither the speedy developments of medical science nor the progressively more obvious political background with administration processes and information open to the neighborhood will be adequate to put a stop to the horrifying end results in the future to be let loose by an influenza epidemic ...

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