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Paper Topic:

Freud and Bandura

Running Head : Aggression (Freud and Bandura

Sigmund Freud and Albert Bandura 's Theories on Aggression

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Abstract

Aggression refers to behavior which results to damage or harm . One of the most debated issues in aggression is whether it is innate in all human beings or is developed through socialization . Sigmund Freud and Albert Bandura believed in the first and the second , respectively Sigmund Freud and Albert Bandura 's Theories on Aggression

In social psychology , aggression is defined as a form of behavior that

br intends to commit a physical or verbal attack . It may either be self-protective and constructive (healthy self-assertiveness ) or improper and destructive (acts of violence against other people Aggression can be targeted towards others or the self , the latter resulting in self-destructive or suicidal actions . It may be motivated by emotional arousal , frustration or the desire to secure a reward (The Free Dictionary , 2008

Sigmund Freud

The Austrian physician and neurologist Sigmund Freud believed that aggression was brought about by a more primary instinct called Thanatos For him , Thanatos was an innate drive towards self-destruction . However it is tempered by Eros , a person 's innate drive towards life . Eros mitigates Thanatos by directing the latter towards other people instead of the self (Dugan , 2004

But Freud 's aforementioned theory underwent several changes . In 1900 for instance , Freud linked aggressiveness to sadism - sadism was a manifestation of human beings ' predisposition towards aggression . By 1905 , he likewise established a connection between aggression and masochism . Freud believed that the masculine position in sex led to a degree of sadistic activity , while the feminine position favored masochistic passivity (Answers , 2008

In 1914 , Freud argued that aggressiveness was related to narcissism Narcissism manifests itself through primary identifications , defensive violence and ambivalence , which , in turn , cause an individual to alternate between love and hate , sadism and aggressiveness . In his studies of the Wolf Man (1918 ) and Little Hans (1919 ) Freud concluded that aggression was an example of a child 's early attempt at seduction . In his work The Ego and the Id (1923 , Freud wrote that primitive hostility (manifested by aggression ) was modified by eroticization (Answers , 2008

Throughout the 1920s , he focused on how narcissistic exhibitionism in infantile fantasy breeds aggression . For Freud , the phallus was the seat of aggression , as it represented one of the driving factors behind it - sexuality . In 1932 , he returned to his original theory that aggression was a result of Thanatos . But this time , Freud added that a child 's psyche contains brutal original energy that , as the child grows older becomes sexualized and brings forth aggression (Answers , 2008

Albert Bandura

Canadian psychologist Albert Bandura formulated the social learning theory in to fully explain human aggression . The social learning theory argued that people learn from each other through modeling observation and imitation . Human behavior is therefore determined by the frequency of exposure to cognitive , behavioral and environmental influences . The inclusion of attention , memory and motivation in the social learning theory turned it into...

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