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Paper Topic:

Film industry




Date : February 26 , 2007

The Hollywood Studio System

When Thomas Edison and his staff developed the kinetograph , a camera using rolls of coated celluloid film , and the Kinetoscope , a device for peep-show viewing using photographs that flipped in sequence ' in 1889 the invention signaled the beginning of the American film industry . The potentials of film as a story-telling medium were broad and promising As the business of filmmaking grew , film companies were established to make movies and market them . The star system was consequence of these

br developments . Enterprising companies began assembling the physical locations where films were shot . An interrelated organization composed of actors , producers , cinematographers , editors , and film laboratory technicians under the supervision of a film director

The earliest film studios were centered in the vicinity of New York City . Edison patented some technical elements involved in filmmaking . In 1909 , Edison formed the Motion Picture Patents Company . It was an attempt to monopolize the budding industry . The company prevented unlicensed companies from producing and distributing films . Embattled independent filmmakers moved away from the New York area and established their operations in suburban Los Angeles . After 1913 , Hollywood California became the film capital of America

Film actors were not yet known by name in the early days . By 1910 , the star system ' was established . Vitagraph Co . was the pioneer in the star system . Florence Lawrence was the first actress introduced by the company using the star system . Other medium of publicity to the popularity of the stars was developed like fan magazines . Film companies found the system to be lucrative when promoting their films and their stars . The star system was cumbersome because of the dichotomy--idols must appear simultaneously identifiable and close enough to be attainable , yet idealized and far away enough to seem flawless ' The star system created various types of actors that would suit the genres that began coming out of the film studios . Actors were packaged in such a way that they appeal to the enormous fan base brought about by the industry . The increased public interest in the stars also meant increased power for the actors . The stars maintained that power as long as they bring in the money for their home studios . Other actors managed to manipulate the system to work for them while others who were unable to enter the system became obscure

From the early 1930 's to 1950 's , studios sponsored a host of talented stars . The other function of studios dealt with film production and distribution . Some studios also invested some money in building theaters where their films can be shown . During its heyday , some of the biggest studios were Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer , Warner Brothers , RKO , Paramount Twentieth Century-Fox , and Universal . These huge outfits churn out film after film in various genres . 1946 was considered to be the best year in terms of financial gains for the American movie industry . The gross earnings at that time were nearly 2 billion dollars

In 1948 , the American economy was doing...

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