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Paper Topic:

Explain the rise of communism in the 19th and early 20th century in Europe.

The Rise of Communism in Europe

Introduction

In the European regions where social class like the elites and the monarchs are common , it was ironic that it was in Europe where communism was conceived and started . Communism in Europe can be traced back when the European countries started to be industrialized . As industrialization took place , the terms capitalism and working class emerged . Eventually , some people who were called socialists argued that the kind of economy where wealthy people have control over their wealth because they created it was a very unfair

practice because it was the working class who created wealth for the rich people and yet the working class suffered from poverty due to underpaid labor . Socialism therefore is basically about economic equality , shared property , and democracy Earlier socialists were Europeans , particularly French , in the name of Henri de Saint-Simon and Francois- Marie- Charles Fourier who were famous utopian

Communism is considered to be a branch or a higher form of socialism 19th and 20th century communism was strongly influenced by German political philosophers and socialists Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels They both wrote the Communist Manifesto which was published in 1848 Communist Manifesto is a course of actions that should be done in to abolish classes in the society . In the 20th century , the most influential communism advocate was Lenin , a Russian communist politician who was strongly influenced by the philosophy of Marx and who contributed to communism in Europe

In this , the rise of communism in the 19th and 20th centuries are discussed when the above mentioned personalities had great influenced The discusses how communism emerged during these periods and how communism during that time can be viewed today

19th Century Communism

In the early 19th century , the opponents of the industrial society were the utopians who support the utopian communism being pursued by de Saint-Simon , a French aristocrat whose ideal of a society was the one who should be led by elite of philosophers and scientists and the society should believe in New Christianity whose priests are the scientists . Another earlier advocate of the utopian communism was Robert Owen , a businessman who owned a factory in Scotland . His idea was that human social behavior is not fixed and that human beings are free to organize themselves into any kind of society they wish (Wikipedia

The rise of industrialization in the 19th century gave way to modern communism where the focus is on the equality between the rich capitalists and the working class . Capitalism was being blamed for the poverty that created the class of poor that is , while the rich become richer , the poor become even poorer , creating a wide gap between the upper class , also called bourgeoisie , and the working class , also called proletarian

Bourgeoisie , according to the Marxist theory had exploited and dominated the working class because they owned the means of producing wealth However , it was the working class who produced the wealth , thus they should share equal rights with the bourgeoisie

Communism also shared views with other progressive movements to abolish all kinds of domination such as sexism and racism , thus Marxism is called Revolutionary Socialism (Anonymous ) and that , communism is a more complex form of socialism . Marxism consisted of three ideas : A philosophical view of man , a theory of history and an economic and political program , making Karl Marx one of the most influential thinkers during this period (Laile . Karl Marx , together with Friedrich Engels wrote the Communist Manifesto which serves as the handbook of the Marxists . The primary objective of the Manifesto was to overthrow and dominate the upper class to establish a classless society and social ownership (High Beam . The Manifesto is a set of policy and plans , and was published in for people to understand communism . In the introduction of the Manifesto , it claimed that communism is feared across Europe but not understood (Wikipedia

It also criticized the practices in the industry like extended working hours , underpaid labor , and the replacement of human skills with machines . The Manifesto outlined the communists ' demands which included abolition of land ownership , the right to inheritance , a progressive income tax , universal education , centralization of the means of communication and transport under the management of the state , and the expansion of the means of production owned by the state (Wikipedia . It is very noticeable that communism wanted to change the views and principles of the government across Europe during that time because that would be the first step to achieve their demands . This government is also called as Marxist government which was adhered by European countries who used to have communist type of government like East Germany , Ethiopia , Hungary , Poland , Romania , Russia , Yugoslavia and some countries in Asia

Marx 's philosophy , in the 19th century , was believed mostly by laborers obviously because it favored them . Under this philosophy , communism would be a social form wherein the working classes would be the sole beneficiary of the fruits of their labor (Political Information , 2006 The Marxist Theory or Marxism gave way to the rise of political communist party in different countries across Europe , whose foundations were based on the principles of Karl Marx . Because communism wanted to change the government , communism is often related to activism and to being anti-government and the power should be in the hands of the Communist parties . Political communism continued during the early 20th century , during the World War II in the times of Hitler and even after the WWII , some of which ended while some countries continue to practice communism

20th Century Communism

When Karl Marx died in 1883 , his ideals were modified by Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov or Lenin , thus Marxism-Leninism was coined . Lenin was a Russian but traveled and lived in some parts of Europe like Geneva Munich , Prague , Vienna , Manchester and London (Wikipedia . He was active in the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP ) and wrote various articles and books related to revolutionary movement including the pamphlet entitled What is to be Done (Wikipedia ) that like the Manifesto , has become very influential . A pluralistic form of Marxism-Leninism is also termed as Eurocommunism in some Western European countries like France , Spain and Italy . In France , there was the French Communist Party which was founded in 1920 in Spain , there were different communist party founded from the mid 19th century up to the early 20th century such as The Spanish Socialist Worker 's Party labor union federations , the Communist Party of Spain and the Federation of Socialist Youth (Busky , 45-46

In the Russian Soviet , communism was about dominating those who are opposed with communism . Opposition parties were not allowed but parties who shared communists ideals were allowed . The state owned the economy private companies were not allowed and there was a collectivization of agriculture (Why did communism Collapse in Eastern Europe ) to eliminate any form of capitalism . The Communist Party was in control over political , social , cultural and economic life . Lenin became the Head of the Soviet State in 1917 . His ideals then include the organization of industry to raise the level of culture , overcome backwardness ignorance , poverty , disease and barbarism (Wikipedia

Lenin founded the Communist International in 1919 which was also known as the Third International or the Comintern , The Communist International aimed at internationalizing the Marxist theory , uniting all the workers of the world for the coming world revolution , which will result to the establishment of a dictatorship of the proletariat and state socialism and the development of a classless society (High Beam . Other socialist parties like the Italian and the American Socialist Parties did not join the organization . Civil war also occurred in the Russia because some people , called the traditionalists , did not want the dictatorship and the militaristic approach of the communist government . However , Lenin and his group won the war against the traditionalists and planned to spread communism and their ideals across Eastern Europe . After Lenin died , communism was continued by his successors , Stalin and Trotsky

However , Joseph Stalin , despite the existence of Comintern still adopted the theory of socialism in one country which asserted the possibility of building a true communist system in one country alone departing the Soviet Russia from the Marxist internationalism (High Beam . Stalin was a real dictator and militaristic . He would brutally remove all opposing parties that were against communism . He initiated the Great Purge , a campaign of political repression , persecution and killings that lasted until 1937 (Wikipedia . He formed the Five-Year Plans and collective farming that resulted to famine between 1932 and 1934 those who would refuse to collectivization will be shot . The departure of Stalin to the Comintern challenged Leon Trotsky to pursue the internationalization of Marxist . Trotsky and his supporters organized into the Left Opposition (Wikipedia left opposition because they were against Stalin who rukled over the Soviet that time . Trotsky did not succeed in removing Stalin from power and in gaining control over the Soviet and as an oppositionist Trotsky was exiled but has left the ideals of Trotskyism . Trotskyism was also based on the theory of Marxism and Leninism as he considered himself as a Marxist and Leninists . His ideals were centered on the need for international permanent revolution and the revival of genuine Marxism as practiced in the early communism in the Soviet . Trotskyism was recognized in some parts of Europe and Asia and has become the foundation of some organizations today like the Committee for a Workers ' International , the International Socialist Tendency in Britain and the Internationalist Communist Union

Communism continued to spread in the mid-20th century during the World War II especially in the Eastern Europe . However , communism also fell due to the resistance of the people . Communism was never really accepted by the Europeans thus gained protests and strikes . Today , European countries are now free from communism since the end of the World War II or in the early 1970 's such as Poland , Romania and Hungary . Communism are now being practices to very few countries outside Europe such as in China , Cuba , Laos , North Korea and Vietnam , China being the most popular communist country today

References

Anonymous , Marxism

Retrieved online on November 21 , 2006

HYPERLINK "http /www .marxists .org /reference /subject /philosophy /help /marxism .htm http /www .marxists .org /reference /subject /philosophy /help /marxism .htm

Busky , Donald , Communism in History and Theory : The European Experience Praeger : Westport , 2002

Laile , Emily , European Society

Retrieved online on November 21 , 2006

HYPERLINK "http /campus .udayton .edu s02-102-10-3 /European 20society .htm http /campus .udayton .edu s02-102-10-3 /European 20society .htm

Political Information Net , Marxism

Retrieved online on November 21 , 2006

HYPERLINK "http /www .politicalinformation .net /encyclopedia /Marxism .htm http /www .politicalinformation .net /encyclopedia /Marxism .htm

Why did communism collapse in Eastern Europe

Retrieved Online November 21 , 2006

HYPERLINK "http /www .studyworld .com /basements /sec_s /Communism_East_Euro pe .html http /www .studyworld .com /basements /sec_s /Communism_East_Europ e .html

Wikipedia , History of Communism

Retrieved online on November 21 , 2006

HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /History_of_communism Communism_in_Europe_d uring_the_ComIntern_period http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /History_of_communism Communism_in_Europe_du ring_the_ComIntern_period

Wikipedia , The Communist Manifesto

Retrieved online on November 21 , 2006

HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /The_Communist_Manifesto http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /The_Communist_Manifesto

Wikipedia , The Utopian Socialist

Retrieved online on November 21 , 2006

HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Utopian_socialism http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Utopian_socialism

High Beam Encyclopedia , Communism

Retrieved online on November 21 , 2006

HYPERLINK "http /www .encyclopedia .com /doc /1E1-communism .html http /www .encyclopedia .com /doc /1E1-communism .html ...

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