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European Motivations for exploring and conquering the new World

European Motivations for Exploring and Conquering the New World

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European Motivations for Exploring and Conquering the New World

Introduction

This provides information about European motivations for exploring and conquering the New World

Expansion of European Empire in the Period of 1870-1914

Suez Canal in Egypt was recently completed in 1870s when Britain purchased approximately half share . Suez Canal was considered as a highly important route through which trade had become possible to India So Britain got hold

over Suez Canal to limit the trade to and from India . Then the European Empire had expanded to other regions as well such as Africa , the Persian Gulf and in the Middle Eastern countries Europeans were expanding their Empire to bring about the New Imperialism ' during which colonization was in accelerating phase . This process was encouraged by the Berlin Conference of 1884 , which in effect provided a charter for the division of Africa into 'spheres of influence

European Motivations

There were various motives behind European zealous participation in the New Imperialism . Firstly , there were intensified rivalries with other powers , as states such as the newly-unified Italy and Germany , along with France , which sought to compensate for its defeat in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870 , looked to the non-European world for expansion An expansionist Russia posed a particular threat in the decaying Turkish (Ottoman ) Empire in the Middle East . British policy-makers wanted to secure further gains before their rivals did , in case they lost out in the international 'balance of power

Secondly , there were economic motives , notably the desire to capture new markets and sources of raw materials , preserve or expand trade links and to prevent the loss of existing overseas markets to other countries Countries such as Nigeria , for example , offered valuable resources such as palm oil , which was used as a lubricant for industrial machinery

Thirdly , there was a growth of imperial nationalism , militarism and a sense of racial superiority 'jingoism ) throughout British society This jingoistic sentiment may have been as much an effect as a cause of British expansionism , but in combination with the other factors it helped to push Britain further along the colonial path In relation to Africa , for example , between 1885 and 1914 Britain took control of nearly 30 per cent of the continent 's population , compared to 15 per cent for France and nine for Germany The formalization of British rule in Africa included Somaliland (1884 , Bechuanaland (1885 , East Africa (1887 , Rhodesia (1888 , The Gambia (1888 , Nyasaland (1889 , Swaziland (1890 , Uganda (1894 , the Sudan (1898 ) and Nigeria (1900

Expansion before 1914 largely ended with the Second Boer War against the Afrikaner republics of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal in 1899-1902 Britain 's underlying reason for starting this war was the discovery of gold and diamonds in the region Although Britain annexed the two Boer Republics in 1902 and established the Union of South Africa in 1910 , the conflict had strained British military capabilities and...

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