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Paper Topic:

Etiology Crime

There are many theories to the development of criminal behavior . Equal in number are the perspectives . These studies of etiology of crime have increasingly expanded from focusing on the individual to include more external factors . Understanding the development and causes of criminal behavior is critical in developing measures to prevent them and the impact they have to others and society as a whole

Consider the illustrative model given . The model for the study of the etiology crime shows the interaction of psychological , sociological economic and political aspects on what defines crime and

the perspectives by which they are committed . The model shows that these perspective interact with each other and consequently to individual criminal behavior

Psychological

The most basic perspectives on the development of criminal behavior are based on psychological studies of motivation , learning and response . The primary perspective that psychology provides is regarding the how crime is related to the internal interactions of individuals as they learn the concept of what is permitted and what is not and how they ultimately respond to it (Coser , 2004 . Behaviorism , cognitivism and constructivism all have varying suggestions as to how a person learns that an act will not be accepted , what motivates individuals to follow these learned conditions and explanations as to the responses people have for them (Zucker Ichiyama , 1996 . These are not exclusively associated with criminal acts , and are instead used to explain all actions whether they are accepted by society or not (Bandura , 1975

For example , a psychodynamic motivation theory suggests that the conscious and unconscious elements in a person 's personality and experience are ctical to his motivations and thus his actions and thusly to crime (Mitchell , 1984 . The drive for satisfying these motivations in turn gives basis for the criminal act (Mook ,1987 . Similarly , nik (1985 ) points out that the struggle that exists between the conscious and unconscious mind regardless of their nature or purpose directly affect motivation

Sociological

Researches have concluded the significance of society structures alone do not directly contribute to criminal incidence but it is the response to the manner by which these structures affect the individual 's environment , situation and function as an individual and in society that influences the nature or origin of development criminal tendencies (McCord , 1981 . Society defines what constitutes a criminal act which though may be identical with many other societies may not be essentially universal or absolute . Social rules that are the basis of what becomes to be considered as criminal behavior is based on social constructs that members have agreed upon to preserve their society (Atkinson et al 1993 . Therefore , if the social construct of one society differs from another , an act acceptable to one may not be acceptable in the other (Myers , 2003

For example , take the issue of punishment that results in forms of social exclusion causes such as incarceration or limitations on civil rights . In principle , any rule that deters the freedom of a member of the society is in contradiction to the core...

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