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Paper Topic:

Discuss the sthrengths and weaknesses of content and process theories of motivation


Motivation is a big influencer of productivity . Many supervisors know that what motivates employees to reach their peak performance is not easy . This is because employees respond in many ways to their jobs and their organization 's practices . Thus , a behavior that is motivated is one which is voluntarily chosen by each employee . The content approach to motivation is one that is of the assumption that individuals are motivated by the desire to fulfill inner needs . Content theories are something that is on the needs that

motivate people . On the other hand process approach to motivation is on how and why people choose particular behavior in to meet their personal goals . Process theories are on the outside influences or behaviors that people choose to meet their needs . These external or outside influences are usually available to supervisors

An example of the content approach to motivation is Maslow 's Hierarchy of Needs which has five level of needs . People go up these levels as their needs are answered . As the lower needs are satisfied , then the higher needs are activated . The most powerful employee need is that one which has not be yet satisfied . Abraham Maslow presented his needs theory in 1942 and then was published in 1954 in Motivation and Personality . This can be advantageous because the employees ' needs are answered as the person is satisfied . But it has its weakness too because it is rigid and does not cover the other small details that need to be taken into consideration when discussing motivations of people . Another content need is the Alderfer 's ERG which identified three categories of needs and its advantage is that there is the addition of the frustration-regression hypothesis that when people are not able to meet their higher level of needs , then , the next lower level needs come out Meanwhile , another one of the content theory is McClelland 's Learned Needs which divides motivation into the needs for power , affiliation and achievement . This is the theory that is more on people pursuing their goals . People like to control their situations so they take risks and get feedback on their progress . This is mainly what this content theory means . There is also the motivation for power and for affiliation all under McClelland 's Learned Needs . Content needs has advantages especially if the person is motivated internally . But if he is not motivated at all , then these content theories are of not much benefit (McClelland

Examples of the process theory Vroom 's Expectancy Model which suggests that people must choose among the alternative behaviors because they will be expecting that these behaviors will also lead to one or more desired outcomes and that the other behaviors will also bring undesirable outcomes . Expectancy states that effort will also lead to first- outcomes . Equity is the thinking of fairness which is involved in rewards given

Another process theory is the Attention , Relevance , Confidence and Satisfaction (ARCS ) Model of Motivational Design or Keller...

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