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Paper Topic:

Critique of Nursing Theory

A Critique of Jean Watson 's Theory of Transpersonal Caring

Different views of nursing gave rise to the formulation of various nursing theories that contribute greatly to the advancement and evolution of the nursing profession as a whole . Some focus on the curative nature of nursing , while others revolve around the social and ethical aspect of the profession that complements conventional medicine Among the latter is Dr . Jean Watson 's Theory of Transpersonal Caring which this attempts to analyze and evaluate using J . Fawcett 's Framework of Analysis and Evaluation of Conceptual

Models of Nursing

Dr . Watson 's personal views of nursing brought about the conception of the theory in 1979 , at the time when she was a professor of nursing at the University of Colorado . Her background in educational-clinical and social psychology influenced these views , along with her involvement in a nursing curriculum that sought to establish a standard to nursing that transcends settings , populations , specialty , subspecialty areas and so forth . It was an attempt to bring meaning and focus to nursing as an emerging discipline and distinct health profession with its own unique values , knowledge and practices , with its own ethic and mission to society (Watson , 2006

Originally , Watson 's theory revolved around three major elements , namely the carative factors , the transpersonal caring relationship , and the caring moment . She stated ten carative factors that served as guidelines for the nursing practice and basically centered on the principles of caring . The transpersonal caring relationship describes how the nurse goes beyond an objective assessment , showing concerns toward the person 's subjective and deeper meaning regarding their own health care situation , while the caring moment is defined as the moment (focal point in space and time ) when the nurse and another person come together in such a way that an occasion for human caring is created (Cara , 2003

In this context , the four essential concepts of nursing - person environment , health , and nursing - are encompassed in the theory . Being holistic in nature , the theory presents its framework as a congregation of all these concepts , centering on the person

Watson regards a person as an individual with unique qualities and unique needs . The person is recognized as a being capable of communicating with another beyond physical interaction . The person is viewed as whole and complete , regardless of illness of disease (Watson 2006

The environment is regarded as a healing space , where the person 's awareness and consciousness can expand and promote mindbodyspirit wholeness and healing (Watson , 1999 . Inevitably , the state of a patient 's environment can influence an individual 's state of health . The physical environment can affect how the person can connect and exist in the spiritual environment created by transpersonal caring relationships and could affect the effectiveness of the science of caring

Health is referred to as the unity and harmony within the mind , body and soul . It is a state of complete physical , mental , and social well-being and functioning (Hagopian , 2007 . The theory establishes that caring can promote a...

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