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Paper Topic:

Criminology Literature review

p Running Head : Criminology Literature Review

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Criminology mainly focuses on behaviors that violates the criminal law while at the same time try to explain the causes of that behaviors there has been various literature reviews that have addressed issues concerning criminological theories and other concepts . This will look at a review of such issues and paying a particular attention to the three strikes . Three strikes laws are United States government incitement that require the state courts to hand down the mandatory and

extended time of incarceration to convicted persons with serious criminal offenses on at least three or more different occasions . Also used synonymously by lawyers and other law professionals as habitual offenders (Marc .M 2002

Policy makers and observers have a great concern over the increase of prison populations over the last three decades . The increase in growth is sometimes through sentencing reforms which makes certain categories of offenders to stay a lengthy time in prisons . The end result is increase of aging inmates which is challenging for various reasons . In addition to increased financial burdens to cater for the older prisoners , it i crucial to consider the reforms intent in evaluating them (Kathleen A . 2002

American criminal Justice Systems have in the last three decades undergone a structural and ideological transformation . Most notable change is the radical expansion of the United States prison population In recent years , there have been reformulation of sentencing reforms that mostly target and incapacitate certain individuals . A good example of such reforms is three strikes and you are out ' also known as habitual offender scheme . According to (Kathleen A . 2002 , those reforms that aim at lengthening the sentence for the habitual offenders ' have a problem for correctional policy analyst . Sufficient post intervention data owing to structure and recently of these reforms do not actually exist to let the researchers evaluate the reforms impact using conventional statistical methods . The stated rationale behind these laws is mostly that the lengthy and automatic imprisonment of persons who commit three or more offenses could be justified on grounds of recidivists are chronically criminal and need to be imprisoned for public safety (Marc .M 2002

The first enactment of the three strikes law was in 1993 at Washington and a year later at California and a little bit later spread to various states . By the year 2001 there were already twenty-five states and federal governments that had designed laws satisfying the criteria of three strikes laws

Application of the three strike laws usually varies from state to state for example some states require the three convictions to be violent related crimes to pronounce the mandatory sentence for any given third felony conviction as long as the very first two felonies were judged as violent or serious (Kathleen A . 2002

The three strikes laws have had several effects . This will analyze these effects in the state of California . A study has shown that a decade before the enactment of the three strikes laws...

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