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Paper Topic:

5. Compare and contrast consciousness, waking consciousness, altered states of consciousness, and daydreaming.

Consciousness , Waking Consciousness , Altered States of Consciousness and Daydreaming

According to Douglas , Ross , and Markman (date ) consciousness seems to be at the very center of what it means to be a human being (p . 15 The authors go on to state that it is assumed that the consciousness plays a causal role ' in processing the input received by the brain and that it has an effect in behavior (Douglas , Ross Markman , date It is probable that the consciousness is an emergent property of our nervous system [that] derives from properties of groups

or aggregates of nerve cells (Douglas , Ross Markman , date ,

. 31

The waking consciousness is that which is in control when human beings are alert and aware of their surroundings . The waking consciousness of a human being permits self awareness and introspection , allowing human beings to develop individually , away from the constraints of instinct It is through our waking consciousness that human beings interact with the world

An altered state of consciousness occurs when the brain functions in a manner outside of its normal patterns . This alteration can occur due to the introduction of drugs , through a lack of oxygen reaching the brain through trauma , or through other events that interrupt the normal pattern of function . However , some altered states of consciousness are relatively normal ' such as dreams and psychosis , which come from the regular functioning of the brain or its defenses

Daydreaming is essentially an altered state of consciousness however , it is an altered state in which the waking consciousness might relax , manage conflict , or sort through issues concerning an individual 's relationships and personal beliefs (WebMD , n . d . Because they perform these function , among others , daydreams are actually a useful function of the human mind . Because they are a function of the waking consciousness , daydreams differ from regular ' dreams and altered states of consciousness


Medin , D , Ross , B . H , Markman , A . B (2005 . Cognitive psychology Danver , MA : John Wiley Sons

WebMD (n . d . Why does daydreaming get such a bad rap ? Louise Chang (ed . Retrieved 24 August 2007 from http /www .webmd .com /balance /features /why-does-daydreaming-get-such-bad- rap...

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