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Paper Topic:

Color Blindness

Color Blindness

Although color blindness is fairly common to humanity , little attention was apparently paid to it until the latter part of the eighteenth century . The first intelligent of it was attempted by John Dalton , an English chemist , in 1798 . Color blindness may be congenital or it may be acquired . Where a person is so born , there is generally no loss in his ability to see brightness , form , detail , and the like . The defect is far more common among men than among women , and is generally transmitted through the distaff side of

the family . This work considers color blindness ' A better expression would be chromatic deficiency ' for if the term color ' is used in its technical sense one who is considered to be color blind ' would be completely lacking any form of vision

Acquired color blindness may occur in diseases of the eye , optic tract or cortex . It may accompany pernicious anemia , vitamin B 1 deficiency exposure to certain poisons such as carbon disulfide , lead , or thallium Cases of acquired color blindness , however , usually involve a general deficiency of vision

The commonest form of color-blindness is red-green blindness . A red-green blind person cannot tell the strawberry from its leaves by color . Reds and greens are alike to him , although there are many gradations of the red-green type . Since all colors that we encounter in nature or fabrics are mixed , the red-green-blind person sees not the reds and greens of the ingredients , but the yellows and the blues . Pure red and pure green he sees as grays . A color-blind person may pass through life without ever discovering that he is color-blind . He may use the names , and he ordinarily thinks that other persons see colors as he sees them

Red-green color blindness finds a natural explanation in the biological law that the last-acquired traits or capacities are the least stable and therefore the first to be lost : specifically , red-green vision is the last acquired , and it is the first to be lost (Blakemore 1990 . Some claim that we cannot have yellow-blue blindness without also having red-green blindness

There are many other forms of color-blindness . The extreme form is color-blindness . Persons so afflicted see no colors . What is to us a richly colored world they see in blacks , grays , and whites . On account of the uncertainty in color theories , there is much dispute in regard to the classification of types of color-blindness . In turn , color-blindness has offered the best opportunity for testing the validity of color theories

A complication is that red-green color blindness is of two different types . Most color-blind persons see gray in place of both red and green with the relative brightnesses of the spectral colors unchanged . Such persons have been called deuteranopes . A few color-deficient persons have color vision further complicated by a shift of relative brightness away from the long wave lengths toward the short wave lengths , so that in place of red they see black and in place of green they see a whitish gray...

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