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Paper Topic:

Chemistry Lab Report

Investigating the Solubility of 5 Salts

Candice Joseph

February 13 , 2007

1 . Purpose

The experiments were carried out for measurement of solubility of 4 chosen salts in water to arrange these salts in the ascending of solubility

2 . Introduction

Different salts dissolve in water to different extent . This fact is of great importance in our daily life as well as in industrial domain like extraction of useful mineral /metal , purification of salts , corrosion etc . Solubility of salts is quantitatively expressed in different units The most common being maximum

mass of a salt which can be completely dissolved in a unit mass of a solvent say 14 gm of KNO3 per 100 gm of water i .e . of gm solute /gm solvent type . Other units are Molarity (M Molality (m , Normality (N , Mole fraction (X ) etc . These different units are useful in different situations . It is easiest to experimentally determine the solubility of a salt in gm (of salt /100 gm (of solvent ) unit and this value can easily be converted into other units by using suitable formulae . The formula to convert gm solute /gm solvent solubility value into molarity (M ) is following (1

is density of solution in g /liter and formula mass is in g /mol

Materials are classified as insoluble , slightly soluble or soluble Materials with solubility less than 0 .01M are classified as insoluble

Experiments were carried out to measure solubility of four salts Calcium Sulfate CaSO4 , Copper (II ) Nitrate Cu (NO3 )2 , Potassium Nitrate KNO3 and Sodium Chloride NaCl

3 . Materials

Approximately five grams of each of salts Ammonium Nitrate NH4NO3 Calcium Sulfate CaSO4 , Copper (II ) Nitrate Cu (NO3 )2 , Potassium Nitrate KNO3 and Sodium Chloride NaCl , 250 ml beaker , 100 ml beaker , 50 ml burette and Parr DMA 35 density meter

4 . Procedure

4 .1 . Ammonium Nitrate NH4NO3 salt was ground into fine powders using a mortar and pestle

4 .2 . Approximately 5 gm of the salts was weighed using a balance and the exact mass was recorded for each of the salts

4 .3 . The salt powder was placed in a clean 250 ml beaker

4 .4 . Water was added slowly using 50 ml burette and the solution was continuously stirred while water was being added . Water addition was done until either all the salt powder was dissolved or 50 ml was reached , whichever occurred first

4 .5 . Volume of water required for complete dissolution of the salt powder was recorded

4 .6 . Density and temperature of the saturated salt solution was measured by using Parr Density meter and the same was recorded

4 .7 . Steps 4 .1 through 4 .6 . were repeated for the remaining four salts and the values were recorded in a table

5 . Data

The data from this experiment is presented in table 1 below

Table 1 : Experimental data on solubility of the salts

Salt Mass of Salt (gm ) Volume of H2O (ml ) Temperature (oC ) Density of Solution (gm /ml

CaSO4 5 .088 50

Cu (NO3 )2...

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