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Paper Topic:

Change in gender role and (work and time) in gebusi community

Kottak defines ethnography as a research method that is an account of particular community , society or culture , beliefs and customs according to (Kottak , 9 . Building on this definition , Knauft describes condensed ethnography as having a teaching purpose , which allows us to learn not only of other community but about ourselves as well (Knauft . 9 . Knauft sought a science orientated explanation and ethic view of the Gebusi culture . Because of this method , his 1998 ethnographic findings on the notion of belief and style of living Kogwayay , Gebusi , has detected a change since his

first visit in 1980 due to Western influence . In his initial research , Gebusi had had little contact with the Western world However , on his second visit much of Gebusi had subordinated themselves to the outsiders who control local activities and institutions (6 . Specifically , regarding gender roles , the male dominant society had changed to one in which women gained more economical standing

On Knauft 's initial visit , Kogwayay was controlled by males . Gebusi women lived willingly under the cultural shadow of Gebusi men and mainly embraced their second class position (Knauft , 20 . The semi nomadic foraging and horticultural Gebusi society separated the roles between two genders , that while male hunted for living animals , women had domesticated jobs , producing food through hard labor and tending the home . Male dominance is seen , for example , at the spirit syance , an event in which male fantasies were indulges while women remained on the sidelines (20 . However , the idea of balanced reciprocity pervaded in the culture , and this might have helped to maintain the somewhat egalitarian aspect of gender divisions

Knauft 's second visit found men and women striving for a modern way of attaining success (Knauft , 131 . Transnationalism had promoted gender changes , by providing new forms of male dominance that took place in school , economic and physical activities . However , women worked as market sellers (in hope of marketing western commodities , and also attended church and school . Some even pictured them as being a nurse wives or in heaven (131

Before Knauft 's second fieldwork , however , a Gebusi 's day might have consisted of relaxation - playing , sleeping and conversing , as their sense of time was rather vague (Knauft , 30 . In addition , their poor nutrition caused them to conserve energy by relaxing rather than working hard . However , the introduction of transnationalism has changed the lives of Gebusi , replace traditional with a more contemporary lifestyle Their life evolved around Christianization , education and economic development that muted the past Kogwayay . They have become modern in their own distinct way and have even adopted the new idea of time in which minutes are measured for punctuality 's sake (Knauft , 164

In relation to humanity as a whole , Gebusi 's can be seen as falling between the traditional and modern , nomad and sedentary . Knauft highlights the importance of considering these patterns in understanding global changes (Knauft , 32 . Over the years , more Gebusi women took economical standings , and the similarity of this to previous stages of other cultures this indicates...

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