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Paper Topic:

Causes and Effects Of Immigration

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMMIGRATION

By

[Author 's Name]

03 May 2008

Causes and Effects of Immigration

Introduction

Globalisation has caused continuous international migration of labour force . During the last 10 years , the United Kingdom has experienced the rapid growth of immigrants ' inflow . In 2001 , 4 .8m immigrants lived in the UK , which amounts to 8 .47 percent of the percent of the working age population (Dustmann Fabbri 2005 . The precise levels of immigration into the UK are yet difficult to establish due to irregular (illegal ) immigration which is

characteristic of all EU member states . Although the causes of immigration in all EU countries are similar , the effects of such immigration patterns onto the local labour market are controversial . There is still no unanimous agreement on whether immigration changes the balance of average wages and increases local unemployment

There are several different causes of immigration in the UK and other EU countries . First , labour force moves from country to country seeking better employment opportunities . In this aspect , Duvell (2006 recognises that the majority of the foreign immigrants coming to the UK or other European countries have high levels of education and practical skills . Second , immigration arises from economic asymmetries as a result of the growing information mobility , globalisation of goods and services , and free access to transportation . However , immigration patterns in the UK often face an economic and social paradox : as immigration restrictions increase , immigration itself increases , too That happens for the account of illegal immigration , which substantially contributes into the growing number of foreign workers in Europe in general , and in the UK , in particular

Globalisation of labour markets is another cause of immigration International firms develop cost-effective international hiring strategies , attracting foreign workers who immigrate to the UK . As a result of globalisation many enterprises operate across the world . The implication is that global firms recruit from a global labour pool Consequentially , national labour markets are being widened into global ones (Steve 2002 . Immigration and globalisation are the two parallel trends , which constantly interact and mutually impact each other . The current economic needs of the globalised labour market create favourable conditions for increasing immigration in Europe

In many cases , immigration becomes the means of closing labour gaps in the local labour markets . For example , in 2002 , the majority of daffodil growers in Cornwall had to leave the major portion of their crops in the fields , due to increasing and even threatening shortage of pickers (Steve 2002 . Simultaneously , fruit growers in the UK constantly require additional labour force during harvest time (Card 2001 . Such labour gaps attract foreign workers who seek employment benefits , reasonable payment , and better living conditions . Both the UK labour market and international economic conditions favour immigration . Discriminative employment opportunities outside Europe and unclosed labour gaps in European countries attract continuous flow of immigrants to Europe

Does that mean that immigration negatively impacts British labour markets ? Several researches suggest that immigration (especially illegal immigration ) contributes into labour competition , and increases labour displacement opportunities , in which British...

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