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Paper Topic:

Bronfenbrenners ecological theory of development

Running Head : Bronfenbrenners Ecological Theory of Development






Bronfenbrenner 's ecological theory explains four types of environmental systems which are in layers or rather nested that influence a child 's development . This theory has however been redefined and renamed bioecological systems theory to explain that the primary influence on a child 's development is their biology (Vander , Crandell Crandell 2007 . This is to imply that the factors that interact in the child 's biology as they mature , their immediate community and family environment

, the societal structure all fuel the child 's development (Addison , 1992 . Changes in any of the environmental layers affect the other layers as influences are bi-directional between and within the layers /systems . The bi-directional influence which refer to influence both towards and from the child form the basis of this theory (Berk 2000 . The four types of systems described which influence a child 's development according to this theory are microsystem , mesosystem exosystem and macro system . Later another system referred to as chronosystem was added . This the

Microsystem refers to the child 's immediate environments such as family , friends , school , the neighbourhood or child care centres (Bronfenbrenner , 2000 . This environment contains structures that are closest to the child and which they have direct contact . At this level of development , the interactions and relationships that the child has impacts away and towards the child (Berk , 2000 . This environment affects the child 's development in several ways . The parents for example influence and affect the...

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