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Prosimians and Anthropoids

There are two main divisions of primates : Prosimians and Anthropoids The lower division , Prosimians consists largely of the "lemurs scattered through the Old World tropics from Africa through Madagascar to Southeast Asia , living in trees , mostly nocturnal in activity , eating fruit and insects , furry in coat , and about the size of a cat or smaller . They are appealing in appearance , and interesting animals , but they are hard to see in the wild because they sleep all day . They are more properly called prosimians , since this sub of the primates

is named Prosimii . It includes lemurs , lorises , and other related "primitive " primates (Wallace , 2004

The higher primates are put in a second sub named the Anthropoidea This includes human beings , apes and monkeys . There are five families three of monkeys , one of apes , and one of men . Anthropoids have the same dental formula , or count , of the several kinds of teeth : 2-1-2-3 (two incisors , one canine , two premolars , and three molars , on either side of both jaws . They are diurnal , or day-living in habit . The back wall of the eye socket is well closed in , separating the socket from the depression in the temple region just behind (Wallace , 2004

Prosimians are smaller than anthropoids and do not have fused skulls like the Anthropoids . The orbit (eye socket ) is open in the prosimians whereas it is closed in anthropoids . Anthropoids have nails , while the prosimians have a grooming claw on the index finger of the hind foot The rest of the digits have nails . The prosimians ' teeth are also different The incisors are almost horizontal in prosimians , and this is called the grooming comb because they use it to groom (UM , 2006 . In the case of Anthropoids , the cerebral cortex extends backward more and more to cover the large brain . The skull becomes rounder , and spine and mouth are alarmingly close to each other underneath . Anthropoids have fused mandibles while prosimians do not have them . Anthropoids have nails whereas prosimians have claws . Anthropoids fill more niches than Prosimians- places which are drier , colder , sparser etc . In the case of fossil identification , the teeth are the key . In prosimians , the small molar crowns have spiky cusps and deep recessions (are "tuberculosectorial . In higher primates the crowns are broader , more level , with shallower , blunter cusps (UM , 2006

The earliest known anthropoidlike fossils were the ones that the Austrian collector Richard Markgraf found at Fayum in Egypt . They were studied in 1911 by Schlosser , and belonged supposedly , to the early Oligocene . He named them Parapithecus and Propliopithecus Propliopithecus , has the catarrhine tooth count and is instantly recognizable as a hominoid (division of anthropoid . His teeth are of simple pattern and include a fairly short and light canine and unspecialized bicuspids or premolars , not skewed in the direction either of later apes or of strongly "bicuspid " man . Parapithecus was still simpler in nature . His incisors , canines and premolars all shaded into one another so gradually that it has never been decided which was...

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