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Paper Topic:

Animal rights

Animal Rights

Animal Experimentation

Table of Contents

Introduction

Historical Overview

Pros of Animal Experimentation

Cons of Animal Experimentation

Alternatives to Experiments on Animals

Conclusion

Bibliography

Introduction

Millions of animals are used in experiments every year . More often than not , they are acquired almost casually , housed abysmally , and denied anything remotely like a life . In addition to suffering through the experiments , they are under constant stress from fear , the loss of control over their lives , and the denial of all that is natural and meaningful

to them , such as enjoying the company of others of their own kind and choosing (Rose , Miller ) Animals from giraffes to gerbils are used for everything from forced aggression and induced fear experiments to tests on new football helmets and septic tank cleaner . Baboons are given AIDS-infected rectal swabs , great apes are purposely driven mad to make them crush their infants ' skulls in child abuse studies , and researchers are changing the genes of pigs so they can no longer walk and chickens so they can no longer fly (Day 11-14

Animals are burned alive in the cockpits of planes , exploded in weapons tests , and forced to inhale pollutants until they choke to death . They are starved and shot they have hallucinogenics and electrical shocks administered to them they are force-fed poisons and used to demonstrate already well established surgical procedures . There are countless examples of wasteful and ludicrous experiments (Gilland 19-23 ) This "rubbish research " comes at a time when many Americans do not have health insurance , scores of alcohol and drug treatment clinics have closed due to the loss of funds , the elderly and disabled go without new eyeglasses or dental care , and unless they can afford to buy themselves disabled people are left without state-of-the-art wheelchairs and home aids that would allow them to participate more fully in society (Nibert et al

Historical Overview

Humans throughout history have utilized animals in a number of different ways . Many of these uses had their origins in early human history including animals originally hunted for food and clothing , later domesticated as beasts of burden , and ultimately venerated as objects of worship and kept as pets for companionship . The practice of animal experimentation is generally traced back to ancient Greece (Day , 4-5 During the ancient Roman and Greek periods , animal experimentation was carried out periodically by individuals , primarily to better understand physiology , but it was far removed from the institutionalized practice that exists today . Although ancient Greece had more diverse views toward animals (some positive and some negative , ancient Rome little importance to animals (Day , 4-6

During the Middle Ages , experimentation was not widely practiced . The Enlightenment period brought with it two different emphases regarding the treatment of animals in general . As a result of Descartes ' theory that animals could not really feel pain , experimentation became more widely accepted and practiced . The nineteenth century saw the rise of humane societies , beginning in England (Nibert et al . 7 ) Although there were individual opponents of animal experimentation prior to this...

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