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Paper Topic:

Animal experimentation an argumentative essay

p Title : Animal Experimentation

Outline

Introduction

Thesis

Argument One

The Three Rs

Argument Two

Conclusion

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Animal Experimentation

Introduction Animal testing is the use of non-human animals in experiments . Clinical , epidemiological , and pathological investigations remain the foundation of research on human disease . It is currently estimated that the throughout the world annually is 200 to 225 million . The United States accounts for about 100 million of these animals as follows : 50 million mice

, 20 million rats , and about 30 million other animals , including 200 ,000 cats and 450 ,000 dogs (Rollin 135 . The research is carried out inside universities , medical schools , pharmaceutical companies , farms defense-research establishments , and commercial facilities that provide animal-testing services to industry (UK Parliament . These may be for the purpose of testing certain substances to determine their effect on humans , or to test medical or psychological hypotheses (AMP . Although animals are often used when ethical or practical issues have precluded the study of humans , the evolving scientific understanding of the complexity of animals and of their social and psychological needs underscores longstanding ethical concerns about their use in laboratory science (APC . The primary purpose of medical research is to promote human health , and the most direct research methods focus on the study of human populations , individuals , and tissues . Animal research has been used as an alternative method when the study of humans is deemed impractical or unethical , or when animal biology is of primary interest and animals are frequently used in biological and medical research , in the testing of drugs and commercial products , and in educational exercises in the sciences (PCRM ) The is mired in controversy with supporters and opponents arguing over both ethical concerns and the effectiveness of the practice (Carbone 2-6 .There exists very little discussion or open communication between the opposing parties on most of these issues . While most of the research scientists have a propensity to dismiss the animal rights activists as "bleeding heart humaniacs (Rollin 134 , the rights activists consider the researchers as ruthless sadists who enjoy inflicting torture and untold pain on helpless animals . These stereotyped representations of people on either side of the fence was perpetuated by profound ignorance on both sides extraordinarily emotional nature of the issues , and a reluctance to seek common ground which led to a constant state of attrition between both sides , each side posturing aggressively against the unseen enemy involved

Thesis With due consideration to the extremist views on both sides of the thesis , the objective of this is to provide a balanced view of the problem that promotes animal welfare and biomedical progress and to provide a convincing argument as to why animal research is necessary for the growth of science , medicine and mankind

Argument One

The Foundation for Biomedical Research , an American interest group supporting animal research , writes "Animal research has played a vital role in virtually every major medical advance of the last century (FBR Research enables scientists to develop medicines that...

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