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Paper Topic:

Analysis of Franz Kafkas `The Metamorphosis`

On Franz Kafka 's Metamorphosis

Franz Kafka can be considered as one of the most significant figures of modern world literature because of his disturbing and symbolic fictions which demonstrate human despair and oppression in the twentieth-century society . His novella Metamorphosis ' is a clear illustration of a person 's struggle for freedom and search for identity amid the harsh environment of the capitalist society . Gregor Samsa 's transformation into an insect may be read as a physical manifestation of the dehumanizing effect of the industrial society upon an individual Gregor , who

became a reluctant slave to this system , lost his humanity through the constant pressures put on him by his work and his family and , thus , became an insect . However , towards the end of the story , it was his metamorphosis , ironically , which led him back to his humanity This intends to trace the loss and return of Gregor Samsa 's humanity through Karl Marx 's theory of constant and relative drives

Marx 's dynamic psychology is based on the primacy of man 's relatedness to the world , to man , and to nature . He believes that man is naturally driven by passions or drives that are unknown to him . These drives are comparable to Freud 's id , the pleasure principle , and superego or the reality principle . However , while Freudian psychoanalysis , which is based on the model of the isolated homme machine , states that drives are fed by inner chemical processes (72 , Marx maintains that man 's passions and drives may be influenced by the social environment in which he is a part of (71 . According to Marx , there are two types of human drives : the constant or fixed ' drives and the relative ' drives The constant drives exist under all circumstances and [ .] can be changed by social conditions only as far as form and direction are concerned (71 . These drives may be seen as natural desires that every individual is eager for . Examples of these constant drives are cravings for the basic human needs such as food and water . The need for love and freedom can also be considered as constant drives . Meanwhile relative drives owe their origin only to a certain type of social organization (71 . Relative drives or appetites are needs which are socially-conditioned . Every person 's relative appetite is a product of a certain society in which s /he is a part of . Greed , guilt , and pride are some examples of relative drive

Marx links the relative appetites to certain social structures and certain conditions of production and communication (71 . He believes that most human motivations are determined by the process of production Each culture or class in a society produces its own social structure and social character . The social structure , then , determines the relative drives which should be fostered or repressed in for the society to function properly . What is repressed depends on the system of the social character (29 . For instance , a capitalist society will produce a social character in which value for...

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