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Paper Topic:

20th Century History

From Africa and Back

An Analysis of African-American Views

I . On African-American Education

Booker Taliaferro Washington , born in 1856 , was known as a great educator and leader of the African-American community . Formerly a slave , he gained an education and ultimately became the first leader of a black teachers ' college - now Tuskegee University in Alabama - where he would culminate his life-long service . He believed in providing young black boys with skills like masonry and carpentry , which would allow them to become productive members of society and be accepted by white Americans

. Responsibility and reliability were Washington 's ideals towards gaining full civil rights as American citizens (Spartacus Educational , 2008 . On the other hand , the militant Ida Bell Wells born in 1862 , fought for African-American and women 's rights , and against lynchings . She was originally a teacher in Memphis , until her criticism of the Memphis Board of Education 's under-funding of African-American schools caused her to lose her job . Wells expressed her disagreement over Washington 's thrust for industrial education citing that the aspirations of blacks cannot be contained within the limited parameters of such a system (Spartacus Educational , 2008 . An evaluation of the ideologies of the two black leaders reveals a more sound and efficient solution in Ida Wells ' aggressive stance , since the passive method promoted by Washington further emphasizes the African-American stereotype of being relegated to manual labor

II . On Returning to Africa

Because of problems met by newly-freed black slaves in the early 1800s including hostility coming from whites , the Back to Africa movement was introduced by the American Colonization Society , composed mostly of philanthropists and abolitionists , but was the original idea of Paul Cuffee , a wealthy African-American . By 1820 , blacks started returning to Africa , and eventually settled in Liberia in 1847 . However , the movement declined in the late 1800s as the majority of blacks , assigned by the American Colonization Society to colonize the newly-founded Liberia , refused to return to a locale that no longer represented their cultural identity (Cumrin , 2007


Cumrin , Timothy (2007 . 'Back to Africa ' The Colonization Movement in Early

America . Conner Prairie website , accessed 10 August 2008 at

HYPERLINK "http /www .connerprairie .org /HistoryOnline /colon .html http /www .connerprairie .org /HistoryOnline /colon .html

Spartacus Educational (2008 . Ida Wells . Spartacus Educational website , accessed on

10 August 2008 at HYPERLINK "http /www .spartacus .schoolnet .co .uk /FWWwells .htm http /www .spartacus .schoolnet .co .uk /FWWwells .htm

Spartacus Educational (2008 . Booker Tafalierro . Spartacus Educational website

accessed on 10 August 2008 at

http /www .spartacus .schoolnet .co .uk /USAbooker .htm


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